Yarova

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United Federated Districts of Yarova

Объединенные федеральные округа Яровый
Flag of Yarova
Flag
of Yarova
Coat of arms
Motto: "Beacon of Liberty, Conquered By None"
"Столб свободы, завоеванный ни одним"
Anthem: "Old Sovereign"
"Старый Государь"

File:Old Sovereign.mp3
Location of  Yarova  (dark green) – in Anterra  (green & grey) – in Eastern Artemia  (green)
Location of  Yarova  (dark green)

– in Anterra  (green & grey)
– in Eastern Artemia  (green)

Political map of Yarova
Political map of Yarova
Capital Shchyokhov
Largest Chaykoboksarsk
Official languages None at federal level
Recognised national languages Yarovan
Demonym Yarovan
Yarovar
Government Federal presidential constitutional republic
• President
Tanas Gruzdev
Kristina Kelerova
Establishment
• East Slavic Confederation of Ljudia
895 CE
• Tsardom of Yarova
1236
• Yarovan Empire (Vojiskiy Empire)
1510
• Union with Hetmanate of Peremorovka
25 February 1692
• Conquest of Greater Kryzhelovschina
14 July 1734
• United Federated Districts of Yarova
13 January 1926
Area
• 
1,452,475 km2 (560,804 sq mi)
Population
• 2020 census
111,012,305
GDP (PPP) 2020 estimate
• Total
$4.0 trillion
• Per capita
$36,080
GDP (nominal) 2020 estimate
• Total
$3.97 trillion
• Per capita
$35,838
Gini (2020) 31.60
medium
HDI (2016) 0.913
very high
Currency Gal'ka (₲/GAL)
Driving side right
Calling code +12

Yarova (Yarovan: Ярова, tr. Yarova), officially the United Federated Districts of Yarova (UFDY) (Yarovan: Объединенные федеральные округа Яровый, tr. Ob'yedinennyye federal'nyye okruga Yarovyy), is a sovereign state located in Eastern Artemia. Yarova shares a border with Lestykhol to the north, Aukalnia to the north-west, Rovsnoska and Zaporizhia to the south, and Lienzeberg, Pozrika, and South Kryzhelovschina to the west. With an overall surface area of just over 1,452,475 square kilometres, Yarova is the ninth largest nation in the world. The capital of Yarova is Shchyokhov and its largest city is the nearby Chaykoboksarsk, which boasts a population of 11,870,752. Other major metropolitan areas, with populations of five million or more, are Minerinsk-Belgorod, Cheskovsk, Yumarapol, Kogalma, Khanskoye-Chirbent and Borisopol. With proven oil reserves amounting to approximately 45,000 million barrels, Yarova has the eighth largest in the world. Owing largely to its richness in natural resources and lucrative extraction, Yarova has the tenth largest economy in the world. In 2020, the United Federated Districts had a GDP totalling just over $4 trillion. Yarova has a major divide between the cosmopolitan coasts mainly reliant on real estate and financial services and the more homogenous interior dominated by the energy industry.

The sovereign state that is now Yarova was first unified in a loose confederation of East Slavic tribes in the late-9th century, in a political entity most commonly known today by historians as Ljudia. The tribes later gradually disbanded into three distinct groups by the mid-13th century – Yarova, Peremorovka and Greater Kryzhelovschina – yet maintained close trade and diplomatic relations, and interaction of populations. It was not for another four centuries, in 1692 CE, until Yarova was again unified politically with Peremorovka, following the marriage of Tsar Yaroslav VI and Svitlana of Peremorovka. The differences between the two Slavic cultures gave way for occasional conflict, however, the union remained a popular concept in the wake of greater regional upheavals. Although the Yarovan-Peremorovkan union was through dynastic marriage, the Dzyunakaz Steppe was heavily, and forcibly, planted by the Yarovars from 1633 onwards, and Greater Kryzhelovschina was acquired in a military campaign in 1734. The indigenous Caucasian and Turkic cultures, along with the culture of the Latangans whose North Tethys homeland was annexed in 1858, suffering a sharp decay.

Yarova is a liberal democracy with significant political tensions. Great controversy ensued when it elected its first female president, Konstantina Grigorievna. Grigorievna, along with her predecessor Nikita Chekudayev, pushed forward a radical reformist platform which included narrowing income disparity and implementing environmentalist initiatives to combat climate change, supported by various progressive Yarovar NGOs. However, Grigorievna and her DSP party's stringent green policies proved controversial, and in April 2020, she was defeated in the general election by the incumbent president, Tanas Gruzdev. Yarova is a founding member of the International Pact on Defeating Climate Change (IPDCC) and had, up until recently, funded a string of non-profit environmentalist organisations. With the ascension of Gruzdev to the federal presidency, Shchyokhov has adopted anti-globalist and protectionist policies. Yarova is generally seen as politically divided between more conservative monarchist interests in the interior, defense, oil industry and more progressive coastal financial interests with ties to Kesh, Western Artimea, and Osorra. Since the 90s Osorrai opening up this latter class has gained more influence in Yarovar politics.

Etymology

The name Yarova is directly derived from the Old East Slavic word Яровая (yarovaya) meaning “spring”. Thus, many etymologists attribute Yarova's name to mean “land of spring". It is more widely accepted that the name was passed on to the modern sovereign state by an East Slavic tribe that inhabited the region which identified by the endonym Yarovsky. Manuscripts which have survived dating from the 6th century CE reinforce the aforementioned conceptualisation, with mention of the tribe. A similar etymological theory has been applied to Peremorovka.

History

Antiquity

Scientists estimate the region that is now Yarova has been inhabited by homo sapiens for over 40,000 years, with the earliest anatomical remains of a modern human found in the River Alegiyev dating back to this period – the oldest in Artemia. A mass grave of neanderthal skeletons were recovered at an archaeological site near Krasnodar in the Kellerovo Oblast and were carbon-dated to only 29,000 years ago. The ancestors of modern Yarovars, the Early East Slavs, began to arrive in the region from the 5th century CE onwards. The Dzyunakaz and southern regions of Yarova were largely dominated by the Khazars from the late-6th century to the mid-9th century CE.

East Slavic Confederation of Ljudia (895-1236 CE)

The Ascension Cathedral in Svogda dates back to 1155 CE.

The East Slavic confederation known as Ljudia, which existed from the late-9th century to the mid-13th century CE, is commonly accepted to be the political entity from which the Tsardom of Yarova would emerge. The Yarovars, Peremorovkars, and Kryzhelovskis all claim the Ljudians as their cultural ancestors. Ljudia was reigned over by the Varangian Oleg dynasty, also referred to as the “Olegids”. Ljudia derives its name from the Proto-Slavic ljudьje meaning “men” or “people”. Pyotr the Pious introduced Christianity to the pagan Ljudians in 988 CE, following his baptism and a subsequent decree which extended the religion to the inhabitants of the confederation and elsewhere in Eastern Artemia.

Soon afterwards, numerous palatial cathedrals and churches were constructed across the region, including the Ascension Cathedral in Svogda which was completed in 1155 CE. The state began to decline towards the end of the 11th century and through the course of the 12th century CE owing to the disintegration of several rival regional powers and also economic factors, such as the collapse of commercial ties with allied empires. The fall of Ljudia was finally brought about in 1236 CE and saw the separation of the East Slavs into the three distinctive nations of Yarova, Peremorovka, and Greater Kryzhelovschina. Large expanses of modern-day Rovsnoska were part of Ljudia's territory.

Tsardom of Yarova (1279-1510)

The last tsar of the Karchagin dynasty, Ivan III (1493-1510 CE).

The Tsardom of Yarova, occasionally referred to as the Tsardom of Svogda by states in Western Artemia, is the period of monarchical rule from the ascension of Tsar Olezhka the Sage of the House of Karchagin in 1279 to the dethronement of Tsar Pyotr III by the Vojiskiys through right of conquest in 1510. In its early years, the Tsardom encompassed regions traditionally inhabited by ethnic Yarovars, the modern-day oblasts of Afonas'yevskiy, Sof'yanka, Golitsyna, Irinovskiy, Shchyokhov, Chaykoboksarsk, Minerinsk-Belgorod, Cheskovsk, Kamenka, and Yumarapol, as well as parts of Otrada and Kellerovo. The aftermath of the collapse of Ljudia lead to the disbanding of several East Slavic tribes, some ethnic Yarovar groups further south in Eastern Artemia never fully reunited under the Tsardom and dialectal splinter groups emerged.

The title of tsar (цар) was used to refer to the autocratic supreme leader of the unified Yarovan entity, as well as the Svogda Patriarchate. The tsar was styled similarly to near East-Keshian royalty, in an attempt to place him on par with major emperors and khans, with the utilisation of emblems such as the double-headed eagle on the state’s coat of arms. The Tsardom allied with the ruling House of Skoropadsky of the Peremorovkan Hetmanate, the second-largest polity to surface from the ashes of Ljudia, as well as with states elsewhere in the continent such as Agrana y Griegro and Tiperyn.

The sheer voracity of the Tsardom to reunify the ethnic Yarovars under one crown resulted in a series of campaigns, some militaristic, others nonviolent. The acquirement of territory in Leont'yevskaya realised after a war with the Tatars in 1454, whereas Buguznogorsk and Borisopol were ceded by a treaty in 1470 with the Ovragny Yarovars. By the dawn of the 16th century, the Tsardom had begun to exercise a policy of manifest destiny known as Vostochnoye Gospodstvo (Восточное господство) or “Eastern Domination,” which paved the way for a new imperial era for Yarova. However, due to internal rivalries and divisions, this era was not ushered in until 1510, when the House of Karchagin fell to the House of Vojiskiy.

The First Yarovan Civil War, which spanned from 1508-1510, came about when the Vojiskiy nobility from Pervouborg garnered widespread support to oust the Karchagins, citing extortionate taxation imposed on the peasantry and even allegations of occultism. The vast majority of Karchagins perished in battle, but a significant proportion fled to Greater Kryzhelovschina and Gardarike.

Vojiskiy imperial era (1510-1926)

File:Flag of the Vojiskiy Empire.png
Flag of the Vojiskiy Empire, adopted in 1692 CE.

The Vojiskiy Empire is an unofficial appellation used by modern-day historians for the territories in Eastern Artemia which were under the rule of the influential royal House of Vojiskiy from 1510-1926. Officially named the Yarovan Empire, it initially centred around the historic region of Yarova Proper, with the royal seat initially located in the city of Svogda, until 1692 when it was moved to Shchyokhov. Over time, through conquest and dynastic marriages, it would go on to include: Peremorovka (1692), the Dzyunakaz Steppe (1633-1730), Greater Kryzhelovschina (1734), Zaporizhia (1743), Rovsnoska (1744), Aukalnia and Sartland (1802), and the North Tethys islands of Latanga (1858). The empire was divided into as many as 106 subdivisions, historically principalities, bishoprics (under the authority of a religious patriarch), free cities, landgrafiya (landgraviates), grafstvo (countships) and razryads (literally order of units).

The term guberniya (governorate) was adopted after the Plantation of the Dzyunakaz, which was the organised colonisation of Yarova's south-east by ethnic Yarovar settlers beginning in 1633 during the reign of Tsar Yaroslav IV. Such subdivisions, except for the razryads and the guberniya, possessed imperial immediacy which granted them a level of self-governance.

Dzyunakaz Wars (1708-1714, 1716-1730) and Four Day War (1734)

The mass migration of Yarovars to the greater Dzyunakaz region intensified in the early 18th century, per the demands of Tsar Yaroslav VI who was particularly resentful of the ethnic diversity of the south. However, reports began to emerge of Yarovar settlers intermarrying with Yelerinsk Turkmen (Trukhmens) and Adyghe populations, which Yaroslav VI infamously referred to as the “hybridisation and bastardisation of the Empire”. Miscegenation was prohibited by imperial decree in 1705, as was Islam, the religion of the majority of indigenous peoples. Following a succession of violent conflicts from 1708-1714 known as the First Dzyunakaz War, the Vojiskiy Empire had entirely consumed and disintegrated the respective nation-states of Adyghea, Kabarda, Balkaria and Trukhmenskaya. Historians estimate some 500,000 Adyghe, Kabardians, Balkars, and Trukhmens were slaughtered in acts of Vojiskiy-perpetrated genocide during this period, and a further 380,000 were killed in engaged combat against the Yarovan aggressor.

File:Yarovan Imperial Expansion 1454-1734.png
Yarovan imperial expansion 1454-1734 CE.

The Second Dzyunakaz War followed shortly after in 1716 and saw the Vojiskiy invasion of the Kartvelian protectorate of Abkhazia. The conflict lasted for fourteen years, as the Kingdom of Kartvelia, along with their Dzhokharian and Meshalian allies, managed to hold back advancing Vojiskiy forces. The aforementioned entities eventually admitted defeat after the devastating Battle of Khankalgorod in May 1730. In 1734, after the solidification of Yarovan imperial rule over the straddling Dzyunakaz Guberniya (Дзюнаказская губерния), the Vojiskiys turned their attention to the former Peremorovkan Hetmanate’s longstanding rival, the Grand Duchy of Aukalnia.

The Vojiskiy Empire aimed to recapture control over all former territories of Ljudia and took advantage of the ethnic Kryzhelovski secessionists who opposed Aukalnian rule. On 16 June, Yarovan imperial forces dispatched from Kapachi and marched on Zatish'ye. Although the Aukalnians initially resisted, in a conflict now known by historians as the Four Day War, victory was secured with the assistance of Kryzhelovski insurgents. The Grand Duchy surrendered Greater Kryzhelovschina to the Vojiskiy Empire by 20 June. However, the Kryzhelovski culture was certainly not embraced after the Grand Duchy's withdrawal. Unlike Peremorovkan, the usage of the Kryzhelovski language was forbidden and for just under two centuries, the region underwent intensive Yarovisation – becoming known as “Little Yarova”.

Annexation of Latanga (1858)

Raising the Vojiskiy flag at Mauga (Maugorod), 1858.

The first contact Yarova had with the North Tethys archipelago of Latanga was in the year 1847 when the Sharovaya Molniya (шаровая молния) and the Balakirev (Баларкирев), commanded by Lieutenant Captain Tomas Vasilievich and Lieutenant Matvei Volodin, landed on the shores of the most westerly islands of Salu and Saina. Upon a second visit in 1849 CE, Vasilievich fostered healthy diplomatic relations with the Mālietoa or King of Latanga Iontana Salesa. Shortly afterwards, on behalf of the Vojiskiys, the Yarovan Tethys Company (YTC) reached an agreement with the king, and territory on the largest island of Mauga was rented out to the Yarovars for trading purposes. On this plot of land, the Yarovan trading post known as Fort Dzhordzh (Форт Джордж) was constructed by YTC employees and some 375 indigenous Latangan workers. For several years, Yarovars supplied the Latangans with furs in exchange for sandalwood and valuable foodstuffs, such as salts and sugarcane.

Mālietoa or King of Latanga Iontana Salesa surrendered to the Yarovars and died in exile in Tilenno.

Due to the presence of other colonial powers elsewhere in Latanga, such as the Briganticans in Moamoa, tensions mounted and rumours of a Vojiskiy conspiracy to overthrow the Mālietoa began to circulate in 1857 CE. As a result of this, the Mālietoa grew to be distrustful of the Yarovars and a period of fractured relations ensued, despite efforts by the YTC to mollify the situation. This increasingly hostile relationship reached a breaking point when the Latangans started to charge the Briganticans significantly less for trade goods whilst demanding a 12 percent increase on Fort Dzhordzh’s lease. In March, Tsar Fridrik II responded to these deemed “acts of aggression” by dispatching to the islands two warships from Khanskoye, the Boykov (Бойков) and the Yakunin (Якунин).

Meanwhile, an incident occurred on 14 March 1858 where several YTC workers on a horse and cart shot dead three indigenous police officers after attempts were made to stop them from transporting muskets to Fort Dzhordzh. Despite food shortages, the YTC contractors and military personnel within the fortifications of Fort Dzhordzh managed to fend off Latangan warriors until the arrival of the Boykov and Yakunin on 8 June. Some 2,300 Vojiskiy imperial troops landed on the soil of Mauga and carried out a military demonstration through the boulevards of the Latangan capital of Mauga (later renamed Maugorod).

Although neither a single shot was fired nor was a foot stepped in the royal palace, the display of Vojiskiy military might proved sufficient in intimidating the Latangans into submission. Iontana Salesa officially surrendered the same day and he was placed under house arrest. The Yarovan forces declared the foundation of the Maugorod Guberniya and claimed jurisdiction over the entire archipelago. The Vojiskiys negotiated with the Briganticans to relinquish their post at Moamoa in return for a payment of $500,000. The Maugorod Islands became an integral part of the Vojiskiy economy, with the cultivation of hevea rubber, cacao and coconut, as well as the processing of copra and the cocoa bean.

Involvement in Grand Campaigns (1920-1922) and Second Civil War (1922-1925)

Citing concerns of a republican coup d'état within the empire’s borders, owing to the rise in popular support of radical republican figures such as Nikita Dmitrievich and Gima Dadei, Yarova entered the Grand Campaigns on the side of Vallis’ monarchical establishment on 8 July 1920. Following the Trials of Yumarapol (16 April 1924), which involved the internment and execution of more than 650 vocal republican advocates in the city of the same name, riots broke out in several key locations across the empire against the imperial government. Tsar Fridrik III declared Martial Law four days later on 12 July, which was met by large riots and protests across the country. Large sections of the Imperial Armed Forces (Имперские Вооруженные Силы) staged a mutiny shortly afterwards, purportedly due to inadequate resources and unsatisfactory treatment of soldiers on the frontlines in Western Artemia. The empire was engulfed into a civil war (sometimes referred to as the Vojiskiy War), agreed by most historians to have begun following a confrontation between loyalist imperial soldiers and guerrilla rebel combatants at a barracks in Oretsk, a town 12 kilometres south-east of Shchyokhov, on 21 July 1924. It was at this point that the empire felt it necessary to withdraw from the war effort in Western Artemia.

Republican Front rebels in the early days of the Second Civil War.

By the autumn of that year, the Republican Front abandoned guerrilla warfare tactics in favour of open engagement, as could be afforded to them after merging with the military mutineers and ethnic minority secessionists, particularly the Kartvelian nationalists active in Kropokhovo and Pozdnyakovskaya. The last and most deadly guerrilla incident was a bombing in the central business district of Chaykoboksarsk, which claimed the lives of 53 people and injured hundreds more. Notable milestone battles and encounters in the civil war took place at Pyatilovka, Voskrelchik, Zatish’ye, Kineshin and at Shchyokhov’s Imperial Palace which was stormed on 13 January 1926. During the war Yarova was forced to give independence to Rovsnoska-Zaporizhia and Aukalnia and Sartland.

The day after the palace was stormed the royal family was executed by a small putschist group. The monarchist forces surrounded the palace, only to find their monarch killed. They signed a peace arrangement with the Republicans where a republic could be incorporated, as long as the privileges of the nobility were preserved, there were no purges of officials within the state, and conservative factions were allowed to participate in free elections. Also the question of reinstating the monarchy would still be on the table. The United Federated Districts of Yarova was founded upon a national democratic constitution. The execution of the monarchy was heavily condemned by the new government. Many conspiracy theories exist on the identities of the putschists who killed the monarchy and their backers.

Contemporary history

Post-Vojiskiy era (1926-1956)

After the formation of the United Federated Districts, prominent figures of the Republican Front set up the Provisional Government in January 1926, with a temporary executive assigned to make preparations for the country’s first-ever democratic elections. Administrative divisions, known as oblasts and free cities, were carved up, each granted their own respective local-level governments. Initially, there were only two free cities, Chaykoboksarsk and the capital of Shchyokhov, Peremorovka formed one single oblast, and the union still administered Shvekshna – thus, there were 23 federated districts, as opposed to the current total of 29. Ethnic minority nationalists who played their part in the war effort to remove the Vojiskiys, such as the Kartvelian and Dzokharian elements of the Republican Front, were particularly aggrieved at the Yarovar-dominated Provisional Government for not facilitating opportunities for secession. Bitter disagreements within the executive led to the creation of Yarova’s first political parties.

The Republican Party (Республиканская партия) was founded by Vitaliy Simakin, a former commander of the Republican Front who advocated Menshevikism in contrast to more radical Volkovists and did not condemn Tsar Fridrik III’s execution, but did not condone it either. Whereas the White Hundreds, led by General Maxim Cherabanov, urged for Yarova to embrace traditional monarchist values. Cherabanov was born and raised on a plantation ranch in Kropokhovo and witnessed the brutal murder of his younger sister during a settlement raid by Kartvelians. Having experienced the conflict between Kartvelian nationalists and Yarovan unionists in the steppe firsthand, Cherabanov was a vocal opponent of Kartvelian nationalism and instead saw Yarova as a civilizational state.

The first President of the United Federated Districts of Yarova, Vitaliy Simakin, pictured in 1926.
The United Federated Districts Railway network was expanded from Zatish'ye to Khanskoye-Chirbent in the 1930s.

The first general election in Yarova, which took place simultaneously to the district legislative elections, was held on 25 April 1926 and saw the Republican Party obtain 54 percent of the parliamentary seats. Simakin, a Menshevik passed away from a brain haemorrhage on 13 September 1926. Simakin’s vice president, Rusya Tarasovich, succeeded him and propelled the United Federated Districts on the path of

Simakin reputedly met with a delegation of southern nationalist leadership during his short tenure to discuss the foundation of small independent states in Yarova’s Dzyunakaz. However, Tarasovich settled on the establishment of federal reservations and the right for oblasts to secede in the event of a plebiscite delivering a mandate. Cherabanov organised a rally in opposition to Tarasovich’s decision on 21 December 1926 in Vhekvitili-Vyshika where he was assassinated by a Meshalian ultranationalist demonstrator. Violence in the Dzyunakaz emanated from Cherabanov’s murder and the inception of ethnic reservations, with the springing up of numerous nationalist paramilitaries. The White Hundreds’s presidential vacancy was filled by Igor Biryu who secured a political partnership with Hayastani conservative activists and renamed the party the Whites in 1928.

The Republican Party lost their majority in the House of Representatives to the Whites in the 1931 general election and Biryu assumed the federal presidency. The Biryu administration attempted to reenact much of the provisions of the monarchist period, and generally set Yarova on a conservative course until the cultural revolution of the 80s. The Biryu administration is most remembered for its massive investment in infrastructure, such as the United Federated Districts Railway network expansion from Zatish'ye to Khanskoye-Chirbent, and the development of an extensive coal-mining industry.

In 1936, Yarova was again placed into the hands of the Republicans and Tarasovich served a second term as president, presiding over new laws such as the Rural Electrification Act, as well as federal regulations on labour and wages. Tarasovich’s successor, Samuil Yankovsky, who served as president from 1941 until he died in 1949, implemented a comprehensive welfare system of universal healthcare and free access to university-level education for all citizens of the country. Yankovsky’s vice president Slava Novoseltsev stood in his place until 1951 when Artur Mosal of the Whites took office. Mosal began to cut previously friendly ties with Osorra and rapidly expanded the size of the Yarovar military. Still, fuel supplies to Osorra continued unhindered.

In 1954, Mosal was the first Yarovan head of state to ever step foot in Maugorod and controversially, established an extensive military installation for the Federal Armed Forces of Yarova in the archipelago – having signed an executive order to displace indigenous Latangan populations and transfer them to the southernmost isles of Salua and Moamoa. Approximately 75,000 Latangans were relocated to the reservation a year later, with more than half of those subsequently migrating to contiguous Yarova. In 1956, the Mosal administration also opened Yarova’s first nuclear power plant in Magnitopukhov, Afonas'yevskiy Oblast. This was believed to be because Osorra was increasingly calling for the transfer of the island into Osorrai hands.

Steppe conflict to the Belost scandal (1956-1979)

Artur Mosal was successful in his bid for re-election to the office of federal president in 1956 and keeping to his campaign promises, his administration devoted substantial sums of tax payer’s money to a national urban renewal project. The skylines of major cities such as Chaykoboksarsk and Minerinsk were transformed thoroughly and profoundly, with mid-century modern architecture characteristic of the radical and ambitious project. Mosal is also championed for overseeing the West Stream natural gas pipeline in 1957, sourced from Gardarike and pumped through to Kryzhelovschina.

In 1959, Mosal’s government signed an executive order to construct three hydroelectric dams on the River Alegiyev to supply water to the burgeoning cities of Chaykoboksarsk, Minerinsk-Belgorod and Shchyokhov. However, the prospect of forcibly removing thousands of people from their homes to flood surrounding areas was widely controversial and the government made a tough compromise, giving the go-ahead to only two dams, Lesovir and Shadimir. The Whites suffered in the 1961 general election and Mosal’s party presidential successor Damir Chigrakov struggled to maintain party unity, marking the beginning of a decade of stagnation.

The Republican Party’s Tomas Eghian, former Chancellor of Pozdnyakovskaya, became Yarova’s seventh president and the first of non-Yarovar ethnicity, coming from a Hayastani background. The legacy of Eghian’s tenure is marred by the intensification of paramilitary campaigns in the Dzyunakaz, known as the Steppe conflict – particularly among communities of Kartvelians, Meshalians and Dzokharians. The Kartvelian terrorist organisation, the Kartvelian National Liberation League or KELL (Kartveli Erovnuli Liberaluri Liga), orchestrated the most deadly attack in modern Yarovan history when, in 1963, three separate bombs were detonated in Shchyokhov’s city centre, killing 61 people and injuring hundreds.

Throughout the 1960s, KELL would go on to carry out countless terrorist attacks across the United Federated Districts, particularly in Kropokhovo Oblast, where ethnic Yarovar settlements were largely targeted. The Eghian administration responded to the escalating violence with military action in 1963 and ordered the Minister for National Security and Defence Gavril Kazarezov to send 10,000 troops to several southern reservations where martial law was applied. In a rare, televised address to the general public, Eghian defended the move by stating: “Regrettably, the local police forces active in many parts of the steppe do not have the means to counter the worsening civil unrest. The posting of Land Forces is the only sensible solution to better uphold law and order". The conflict never escalated into a full-scale civil war but it is estimated some 2,625 people were killed, including 952 civilians.

Polikarp Belost, who served as president from 1970 until his resignation in 1974.

Eghian resigned from politics in 1966 and his next-in-line party leader Aleksandr Dadei became the next federal president following a landslide victory. Dadei promised an end to the violence in the south and a reconciliation process between the state and indigenous minorities. In 1967, Dadei, accompanied by senior government officials, met with KELL representatives and urged a ceasefire, which eventually took place a year later. Dadei delivered an apology on behalf of the Yarovan government for past atrocities on 23 September 1968, and his cabinet introduced minority language protections. In efforts to conserve the ceasefire, the Yarovan government invested $500 million into the infrastructure and institutions of the federal indigenous reservations.

A peace treaty was finally signed on 11 April 1970, between Dadei, district chancellors, all major Yarovan parties and the KELL’s chief of staff Malkhazi Darchidze. The treaty, known as the Abaksamir Agreement after the city in which it was signed, included other terrorist organisations such as the Meshalian Independence Army and the Dzhokharian Freedom Front. Although significant progress was made during Dadei's incumbency, all troops were not withdrawn from the reservations by the 1971 general election. However, Dadei did not contend in the election, having stepped down from party leadership in 1970. The Republican Party ran the new party president Polikarp Belost, who attained the federal presidency after negotiating a coalition government with Danya Levkin and the Agricultural Rural Workers' Party.

Belost’s time in office was embroiled in controversy after an anonymous group of journalists and Surkov Palace staffers released an incriminating audio recording in 1974 of Belost admitting to accepting bribes off fossil fuel corporations. Belost initially denied the authenticity of the recording, swearing by oath at a court hearing relating to the incident. Both members of the official Opposition and party colleagues commenced an impeachment process to remove Belost as the First Citizen of Yarova. After several days of heavy interrogation, Belost finally admitted to willfully receiving bribes off Stremit'sya Neft' and the Oborian Corporation between 1969-1972, dating back to his office as Vice Chancellor of Roslapeysk. Belost resigned from the federal presidency on 12 October 1974 in the face of almost certain impeachment and removal from the office. The scandal threw the entire Republican Party into jeopardy and led to the disintegration of the party after major internal feuds.

The 1974 general election saw a victory for the Whites under Vadim Kochervozhkin and an unprecedented loss for the Republican Party, which lost a staggering 110 seats. The Democratic Socialists and Progressives (Демократические социалисты и прогрессисты), Ecology Party (Экология партии) and Alternative Socialist Movement (Альтернативное социалистическое движение) surfaced as credible political players in the 1970s, whereas the Republican Party formally disbanded in 1979. The minute ideological differences of the centrist Republican Party and Whites resulted in many members of the former joining the latter, while other, more conservative members continued to group under a new party name – the People of Yarova (Яровский народ). The 1979 general election resulted narrowly in a second term for Kochervozhkin but also notable strides for the People of Yarova, which practised populist-style rallies and called for a “revival to Yarovan glory”. Kochervozhkin carried out a defensive presidential campaign and accused the People of Yarova's president Danila Christov of acting in the interests of the burgeoning military industrial complex.

Nuclear weapons era (1980-2003) and contemporary history

Vadim Kochervozhkin’s second term was marked with disgrace when he made inflammatory comments in regards to the Steppe conflict and the signing of the Abaksamir Agreement, referring to the truce as a “shameful mistake in history”. Kochervozhkin went on to call Dzyunakaz nationalists “vile murderers” and the People of Yarova party the “greatest threat to the future of the union”. Mass demonstrations took place across the length and breadth of Yarova, with the formation of the populist, grassroots United Yarova Movement, which encouraged multiculturalism and pluralism. The right-wing People of Yarova party seized the opportunity and many of their political figures widely attended such protests.

Military parades of the Federal Armed Forces of Yarova became commonplace during the presidencies of Danila Christov and Sergey Khismatullin (1980-1995).

The issue of the Osorra-Tilenno War became a major issue in Yarova at this time, with left wing factions generally supporting the war and calling for Yarova to lift its fuel sanctions on Osorra while the right wingers wanted them to stay. These tensions, combined with worsening economic conditions and national riots led to a political explosion.

The exacerbating economic recession compounded the demonstrations, which culminated in the Chaykoboksarsk and Minerinsk-Belgorod riots in February 1980. The usage of tear gas and water cannons by the police forces drove Kochervozhkin’s approval ratings to plummet to less than 15 percent and on 17 March 1980, he became the second federal president to resign. In the 1980 general election, Danila Christov and the People of Yarova were voted into government, birthing a new age in Yarovan politics. The rise of the People of Yarova and the leftist Democratic Socialists and Progressives set the stage for the modern political landscape in the country – with the deterioration of the now-small Christian Alliance Party. This was in the context of a rapidly adjusting geopolitical position, as the country divided itself over issues of the war.

Christov’s presidency was characterised by increasing government expenditure on the Federal Armed Forces from 2.4 to 5.0 percent of GDP and the commencement of Yarova’s nuclear weapons programme in 1982 with the testing of the “Dire Wolf” (Страшный волк). Christov, a former member of the Republican Party and a House Representative for Yevgenisk-Tikhonborg, was a Yarovan unionist but, unlike Kochervozhkin, did not threaten to dismantle the Abaksamir Agreement. He appointed former KELL physical force activists to the national military and was said to have personally befriended Malkhazi Darchidze, having admired his perceived “ballsiness”. Three of the four nuclear weapons tests from 1982-1984 were conducted in the sea surrounding the overseas territory of Maugorod, with a single test occurring underground in a remote area in Bochinovka Oblast. Given the economy patently improved during Christov’s presidency, the People of Yarova’s popularity remained stable. His vice president Sergey Khismatullin assumed party leadership in 1984 and was sworn in as president following another positive electoral result in 1985.

Controversially, Khismatullin was a proponent of the reintroduction of the death penalty and anti-abortion laws, and he vocally supported Chernarussian secession from Poja. By the mid-1980s, the Democratic Socialists and Progressives gained significant media coverage, calling for the immediate decommissioning of the nuclear arsenal. Igor Ukhtomsky, who served as Leader of the Opposition from 1987 until his sudden death in 1998 from a severe case of pleurisy, became well-known for his scathing criticisms of the Khismatullin administration, which lasted two terms until 1995. Khismatullin’s popularity descended rapidly during and after the largely unsuccessful Yaro-Aukalnian War from 1992-1993.

Ukhtomsky’s successor Vladimir Rodchenko stood on a platform of denuclearisation and noted the neglect of healthcare and education services with the People of Yarova’s prioritisation of militarisation. He was elected as the first self-identified socialist president of Yarova since Simakin and implemented environmentalist policies with the foundation of the International Pact on Defeating Climate Change (IPDCC). In 2003, Rodchenko initiated the process of dismantling the nation’s eight nuclear armaments, making Yarova the first country in the world to do so. His contentious Aukalnia and Sartland Decolonisation and Reconciliation Act in 1995 passed in the House of Representatives 236-225, and resulted in the 1998 de jure handover of Shvekshna Oblast to Aukalnia and Sartland.

Geography

Yarova territorially occupies much of Eastern Artemia (with a land area of 1,162,016 square kilometres). Most of the south-east of the country is situated along the coastal front of the Sea of Irkutsk (Иркутское море); within which, Yarova claims 7,230 square kilometres of territorial waters. More than 875 islands and islets are recognised as being under the possession of Yarova – most notably, the heavily urbanised islands of Pylëvo and Ulyagir, as well as the dispersed and uninhabited archipelago of Khalturiny. The northern fringe of Yarova is dominated by vast coniferous forests and the Karbykan mountains, home to the state’s highest elevated point Yanishivka (Янишівка), which stands at an imposing 4,556 metres above sea level and earned the local nickname "King of the East". Whereas central and southern Yarova features rolling hills with gentle slopes, bayous, and prairie grasslands.

Female Bochinovka brown bear with cub, a subspecies of the brown bear, near Ularilsk.

Given the low population density in much of the country, Yarova provides a crucial natural habitat for numerous species of plants and animals. The diversity of Yarova’s flora and fauna is widespread, given the varied ecosystems of subarctic mountains, swamps and prairies. According to official statistics by the Federal Agency for National Parks, there are 74 federally protected wildlife reserves located across the federated districts. The largest, Dhomozakhov National Park, is 5,322 square kilometres in size and is located in the oblasts of Smirnova, Srednikovo and Irinovskiy. Most of the national parks are closed to the general public for 40 weeks each year and, by law, are heavily monitored by park rangers. In the north, given the harsher climate, there are many fur-bearing animals, to name just a few: brown bear, ermine, marten, moose, and grey wolf. The fur trade was once an integral part of Yarovan culture and society but was banned after a fierce nationwide debate in 1997.

The Sea of Irkutsk supports a multitude of fish species and other forms of aquatic life. The biodiversity present in the Irkutsk is indeed rich. Commercial fisheries in the sea support fish such as cod, halibut, ocean perch, pollock, sablefish, and salmon. A large number of whale species also inhabit the sea and neighbouring area, such as beluga, bowhead whale, blue whale, fin whale, grey whale, humpback whale, and sperm whale. After centuries of an unceasingly intense whaling trade among Yarovars, the whale populations suffered dramatically and have declined 80 percent. The indigenous Irkutsk whale numbered some 18,000 whales just two centuries ago, but at an estimated population of about 35 today, they are now the rarest in the world. Conservation efforts to protect the remaining whale populations has been called a “significant national priority” by the Yarovan government. Other marine mammals in the waters surrounding Yarova include northern fur seals, sea lions, walruses and orca.

Climate

Panoramic view of the Karbykan mountains (Карбыканские горы) in the north of the country.

The climate of Yarova, using the Köppen climate classification system, can be divided into five groups: subarctic in the north, dry-summer subarctic in the north-east, warm-summer humid continental across the midlands and south, hot-summer humid continental in the south-east and coastal region, and cold semi-arid in the south-west. The country's climate lies primarily between the subarctic and continental climate zones with relatively cool summers and winters below freezing.

The warmest region in Yarova is Kropokhovo Oblast in the southeast of the country, where temperatures in the summer average between 24 and 32 °C (75 and 90 °F) but can go as high as 34 to 39 °C (93.2 to 102.2 °F) on some days in the warmest months of July and August. The warmest cities in Yarova are Vhekvitili-Vyshika, and Khanskoye-Chirbent. The average temperatures in Khanskoye-Chirbent are 20 °C (68 °F) in the summer and 0 °C (32.0 °F) in the winter, but Vhekvitili-Vyshika has the longest summer in all of Yarova, which lasts for 115 days, from mid-May to mid-September. The coldest region of Yarova is in the north in Pivnichna Peremorovka Oblast near the border with Lestykhol and Aukalnia and Sartland. Usually, the coldest city is Sibargan. The climate is affected by cold fronts which come from the arctic. The average temperature in the winter in Sibargan ranges from −8.5 to −4 °C (16.7 to 25 °F). The overseas territory of Maugorod, as a tropical North Tethys archipelago close to the equator, its climate is warm and humid all year round, with little variation in temperature but with distinct wet and dry seasons. Maugorod's average daytime air temperature throughout the year ranges from 24 to 30 °C (75.2 to 86 °F).

Climate data for the United Federated Districts of Yarova
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.6
(60.1)
16.4
(61.5)
19.1
(66.4)
24.9
(76.8)
31.6
(88.9)
32.8
(91)
39.0
(102.2)
31.7
(89.1)
28.5
(83.3)
24.2
(75.6)
17.0
(62.6)
15.0
(59)
39.0
(102.2)
Average high °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
8.4
(47.1)
10.6
(51.1)
13.5
(56.3)
16.8
(62.2)
19.6
(67.3)
22.0
(71.6)
22.3
(72.1)
19.0
(66.2)
13.9
(57)
9.3
(48.7)
6.8
(44.2)
14.1
(57.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.8
(40.6)
5.9
(42.6)
7.6
(45.7)
10.0
(50)
13.2
(55.8)
15.9
(60.6)
18.1
(64.6)
18.3
(64.9)
15.4
(59.7)
11.1
(52)
7.1
(44.8)
4.8
(40.6)
11.0
(51.8)
Average low °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
3.4
(38.1)
4.6
(40.3)
6.5
(43.7)
9.5
(49.1)
12.2
(54)
14.1
(57.4)
14.4
(57.9)
11.6
(52.9)
8.2
(46.8)
4.8
(40.6)
2.8
(37)
7.9
(46.2)
Record low °C (°F) −13.3
(8.1)
−6.7
(19.9)
−5
(23)
−1.1
(30)
1.1
(34)
2.8
(37)
2.8
(37)
5.0
(41)
1.7
(35.1)
−3.2
(26.2)
−9.9
(14.2)
−15.6
(3.9)
−15.6
(3.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 178.8
(7.039)
183.8
(7.236)
155.8
(6.134)
117.9
(4.642)
86.7
(3.413)
69.9
(2.752)
53.4
(2.102)
50.8
(2)
73.3
(2.886)
147.8
(5.819)
239.2
(9.417)
231.3
(9.106)
1,588.6
(62.543)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 143.6
(5.654)
173.5
(6.831)
153.1
(6.028)
117.0
(4.606)
86.7
(3.413)
69.9
(2.752)
49.1
(1.933)
48.3
(1.902)
71.0
(2.795)
131.9
(5.193)
219.5
(8.642)
211.5
(8.327)
1,474.9
(58.067)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 15.3
(6.02)
10.2
(4.02)
2.7
(1.06)
0.9
(0.35)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
2.7
(1.06)
11.8
(4.65)
43.6
(17.17)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 18.3 16.4 16.6 14.9 12.9 11.6 7.6 7.7 9.4 14.9 19.8 19.1 169.1
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 14.8 16.3 15.9 14.2 13.2 10.7 7.6 7.7 9.8 12.0 16.8 16.2 154.5
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 2.8 1.9 0.89 0.24 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.05 0.88 2.9 9.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 51.1 79.6 124.7 161.3 222.8 223.5 276.8 256.6 178.3 127.3 66.9 49.6 1,818.4
Source: Federal Yarovan Meteorological Agency

Biodiversity

In terms of Phytogeography, Yarova is shared between the subarctic and eastern Artemian provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the Global Centre for the Conservation of Wildlife (GCCW), the territory of the United Federated Districts can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Yarovan taiga, Sarmatic mixed forests, and East Artemian forest steppe. Taiga covers much of Yarova's north, stretching from Pivnichna Peremorovka to northern Bochinovka. South of the Polotsk-Zmeinogorsk line, forests are characterised by mixed forests. In the south of Yarova, in the Dzyunakaz region, sedges are common.

The red boy (красный парень форель), a variety of trout only proven to inhabit Lake Kapachi in northwestern Yarova.

The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is Yarova's national animal. Similarly, Yarova has a diverse and extensive range of fauna. There are at least sixty native mammalian species, 488 bird species (of which 266 are nesting birds), over 100 fish species, and 11 reptile and frog species present today, many migrating from neighbouring countries thousands of years ago. Large and widely recognised wildlife mammals found in Yarova are the brown bear (the national animal), grey wolf, wolverine, and moose. Three of the more striking birds are the capercaillie, a large, black-plumaged member of the grouse family and the national bird of Yarova; the whooper swan, a large Artemian swan; and the Artemian eagle-owl. The latter is considered an indicator of old-growth forest connectivity and has been declining because of landscape fragmentation. The most common breeding birds are the willow warbler, common chaffinch, and redwing. Of some seventy species of freshwater fish, the northern pike, perch, and others are plentiful. Tethys salmon remains the favourite of fly fishing enthusiasts.

The endangered Zarevda ringed seal, one of only three lake seal species in the world, exists only in the Zarevda lake system of southeastern Yarova, down to only 300 seals today. It features on the official emblem of the Ministry for Climate Action and the Environment. In the northwest of the country, Lake Kapachi hosts three varieties of trout not proven to inhabit anywhere else in the world - the red boy trout, black-fin trout, and the Kapachi trout.

Politics

The United Federated Districts of Yarova is a federal republic with both a presidential and unicameral system. The federated districts possess a level of autonomy from the federal government, with substantial powers on fiscal, educational, medical and transport affairs. However, on matters of defence, foreign policy and trade, the government in Shchyokhov practise complete control. Shchyokhov, itself, is home to both the national parliament and a municipal-level legislature. The grounds of the Surkov Palace (Дворец сурков) near downtown Shchyokhov, where the national parliament is located, is legally considered to be the Yarovan capital territory.

File:Seats in the Yarovian Parliament.PNG
      People of Yarova: 401 seats
      Democratic Socialists and Progressives: 53 seats
      Christian Alliance Party: 11 seats
      Peremorovkan Voice: 10 seats
      Yarovar Defence Front: 8 seats
      Independents: 27 seats

At a height of 84 metres, an area of 365,000 m2 and having a volume of 2,550,000 m3, the Surkov Palace is the largest parliament building in the world and the world's fourth-largest building. Despite its tremendous size, the palace is composed of just a single legislative house (albeit a large one), known as the House of Representatives (палата представителей). The House of Representatives currently has 510 seats; roughly one parliamentarian per 200,000 Yarovars.

The largest, ruling party in Yarova is the People of Yarova (PY), which occupies 401 seats in the House of Representatives. The second-largest party which participates as the official opposition, the Democratic Socialists and Progressives (DSP), currently holds 53 seats – a significant decrease of 189 seats in the Yarovan general election, 2020. The DSP had dominated Yarovan politics since 1995, with a long period of office including three presidencies and five consecutive terms, a monopoly which lasted until the last election. The DSP had been in a coalition with the Ecology Party (EP) from 2010 to 2019, however, both parties merged into one in October of that year with the aim of curbing the prospect of a PY federal president. The PY made significant gains in the 2019 district elections, winning an overall 16 districts and many political pundits predicted a Gruzdev administration. PY leader Tanas Gruzdev indeed won the general election the following year with a vote share of more than 70 percent, the first president in the history of the United Federated Districts to receive such a sizeable democratic mandate.

Traditionally, throughout the 20th century, the Whites and the now-defunct Republican Party were the largest political parties in Yarova. During the 1980s and 1990s, Yarovan society underwent a cultural revolution which fanned dramatic changes across the political landscape. It was at this time that the DSP and EP emerged from 'fringe politics' as credible contenders in the mainstream. In 1989, after several years of political decline, the Republican Party was officially dissolved and the People of Yarova was established in its place. Meanwhile, the Christian Alliance Party managed to hold on to a slim percentage of the middle-class vote, and its traditionalist heartlands in the Kropokhovo Oblast have kept the party afloat ever since. Tanas Gruzdev reached an agreement with the Whites’s leader Aleksandr Lusitsyn in 2020 to not run any PY candidates in Kropokhovo Oblast, in return for the party to not contest in any other federated district.

Governance and administration

Following a landslide victory in the PY's leadership contest on 3 August 2004, subsequent to the sudden death of Jora Firsov, Tanas Gruzdev ran four times as presidential candidate, against Nikita Chekudayev in 2005 and 2010 and against Konstantina Grigorievna in 2015, before finally winning the general election in 2020. Gruzdev's presidential campaign was built upon ideas of Yarovan nationalism, irredentism, and economic protectionism, as well as promises for the expansion of the petroleum industry and a far-reaching crackdown on organised crime. Kristina Kelerova, the deputy leader of the party, was selected as Gruzdev’s running mate and she sits as the current vice president for his administration.

File:Government in Yarova.jpg
Clockwise: President Tanas Gruzdev; Vice President Kristina Kelerova; Yarovan parliament building, the Surkov Palace (Дворец сурков).

The Yarovan Federal Council of Ministers (Федеральный совет министров) currently comprises of thirteen respective officeholders. As of April 2020, the federal ministers are: Minister for Climate Action and the Environment (Yaroslav Voskoboynikov), Minister for Social Justice and Equality (Grischa Pishchalnikov), Minister for Agricultural and Food Affairs (Boris Nikulin), Minister for National Security and Defence (Mikhail Korablyov), Minister for Finance and Public Expenditure (Pyotr Kashuba), Minister for Education (Mstislav Dostoyevsky), Minister for Healthcare and Child Protection (Gorban Laptev), Minister for Culture, Heritage and Minority Affairs (Muhammed Shishani), Minister for Transport and Communications (Yevstigney Gorshkov), Minister for Social Welfare (Emiliya Kolomnikova), Minister for Development, Infrastructure and Planning (Yuriy Kurakin), Minister for Energy and Natural Resources (Mikhail Prikhodko), and Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade (Vladislav Olkhovsky).

The Supreme Court of Yarova is the highest court in the United Federated Districts and is the final arbiter. Chief Justice Karl Shurgin has led the Supreme Court since 2011. Its nine members are nominated by the president at the advice of his/her cabinet and approved after consultation with non-governmental legal bodies. Justices from the jurisdictions of federated districts may be promoted to superior posts, as was the case with Shurgin. The Supreme Court is situated adjacent to the House of Representatives within the Surkov Palace. All 29 federated districts follow Yarovan Law. Law enforcement, including criminal courts, is the responsibility of the districts and is only supervised by the federal government. As of 2017, only ten of the districts have armed police forces. On matters of national security and intelligence, the Federal Intelligence Agency (FRU) (Федеральное разведывательное управление) serves as the primary governmental organisation.

Administrative divisions

Yarova is divided into 29 contiguous federated districts and an overseas territory in the North Tethys called the Maugorod Islands. Of those 29 federated districts, 8 are referred to as municipal communities, or free cities (вольный город) in official government affairs.

File:Map of the Yarovian districts.png
Map displaying all 29 federated districts of Yarova.

Currently, the 8 free cities are: Borisopol, Chaykoboksarsk, Cheskovsk, Khanskoye-Chirbent, Kogalma, Minerinsk-Belgorod, Shchyokhov and Yumarapol. The remaining 21 are conversely known as oblasts (область). At present, the oblasts are: Afonas'yevskiy, Bochinovka, Buguznogorsk, Golitsyna, Irinovskiy, Kamenka, Kellerovo, Khomustatskaya, Kropokhovo, Kryzhelovschina, Leont'yevskaya, Otrada, Pozdnyakovskaya, Pivdenna Peremorovka, Pivnichna Peremorovka, Roslapeysk, Smirnova, Srednikovo, Sof'yanka, Yadryshkina and Yelerinsk. Though geographically much larger, the oblasts are markedly smaller population-wise than their municipal counterparts, with the largest oblast of Bochinovka having the lowest number of inhabitants (893,075).

File:Flags of Yarova.png
Flags of Yarova's oblasts, free cities, and overseas territory.

The municipal communities are further divided into boroughs (район), whereas the oblasts consist of counties (округ). The districts each have their respective legislative assemblies, though the passing of laws may be overruled by the federal government based in the Free City of Shchyokhov. The head of a district government is known as a chancellor.

The districts possess the right to secede from the Yarovan state, in the event a popular vote succeeds in a mandate to do so. Demand for such referenda is highest in the north-western districts, where nationalist parties are receiving a surge in support. A plebiscite on the independence of Peremorovka was held in 2013 (in both the Pivdenna and Pivnichna oblasts), however, the electorate voted 63.1 percent to remain in the union.

Federal reservations

In the United Federated Districts, there are three types of reserved federal lands: military, public, and indigenous. A federal indigenous reservation is an area of land reserved for an ethnic minority under agreement with the Yarovan government, executive order, or federal statute or administrative action as permanent indigenous homelands, and where the federal government holds title to the land in trust on behalf of the ethnic minority.

Adygeysk, the main city of the Adyghea Reservation, the largest federal indigenous reservation in Yarova and homeland of the Adyghe people.

Approximately 18 million acres are held in trust by the United Federated Districts for various indigenous ethnic minority communities and individuals. There are, presently, seventeen indigenous land areas in Yarova administered as federal reservations. The largest is the Adyghe Free Nation’s 3.5 million-acre Adyghea Reservation located in Kellerovo Oblast on the border with Zaporizhia. The smallest is a 116,500-acre area in Leont'yevskaya Oblast where the Leont'yevskaya Reservation of Tatarstan is situated on the shores of Lake Nazan.

Some reservations are the remnants of an ethnic minority’s original land base. Others stem from the territories that were carved up by the imperial government for the resettling of indigenous people forcibly relocated from their homelands in conflicts during the 18th century. In 1926, President Rusya Tarasovich, who sought to protect the traditional customs and ways of life of Yarova’s minorities but was opposed to ethnic secession, declared the federal recognition of sixteen indigenous minority groups and established the modern reservation system. Federal indigenous reservations are generally exempt from the jurisdiction of federated districts, including taxation, except when the House of Representatives specifically authorises such jurisdiction.

The federal indigenous reservation system has not been without controversy, and since its inception, has provoked the ire of organised activists, chiefly ethno-nationalists but also from critics who believe it reinforces perceived white supremacy in the country. Since 1971, the Kartvelian Free Nation of Kropokhovo and Pozdnyakovskaya have been pursuing a court case against the federal government, demanding their people’s right to vote on independence - a right currently reserved to federated districts.

Foreign relations

The foreign policy of Yarova is focused on maintaining a "Slavonic Great Space" across Anterra as well as the spread of liberal democratic norms around the world. Yarova rejects realism, preferring the creation of an integrated global market with united free trade norms and a balance of powers. Yarova is an observer to the Yunnan Pact. Yarova is a significant rival to NSC and Tiperish interests in the world.

In 2001, during the administration of Vladimir Rodchenko (1995-2005), the International Pact on Defeating Climate Change (IPDCC) was established. Since then, it has been signed by 31 states across the world, including Yarova. The Rodchenko administration was also responsible for the dismantling of the country's nuclear weapons programme in 2003 (eight bombs), making it the first in the world to decommission its WMDs voluntarily. Following this, later that year, Yarova signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Yarova retired from the NPT in 2020 and has controversially relaunched its nuclear programme, which is currently in the development stage. Since the turn of the 21st century, the United Federated Districts had encouraged the development of further co-operation with its neighbouring states and, in 2012, founded YZAGA, a free trade area with Zaporizhia, Graznava, and Aukalnia and Sartland. As part of YZAGA, Yarova was an observer of the Pan-Artemian Coalition (PAC).

Country Status Current state of relations Mutual Embassies Visa Requirement
 Zaporizhia Allied Highest net recipient of Yarovan foreign aid. Yes No
 Jungastia Friendly Yes Yes
 Agrana y Griegro Neutral Member of North-South Concordant. Yes Yes
 Alvakalia Neutral Member of North-South Concordant. Yes Yes
File:FlagofAsharistan.svg Asharistan Neutral Member of North-South Concordant. Yes Yes
 Kodeshia Neutral Yes Yes
 Kaya Neutral Member of North-South Concordant. Yes Yes
 Lestykhol Neutral Member of Allied Eastern States. Yes Yes
File:Poja Flag-01.png Poja Neutral Yes Yes
 Rovsnoska Neutral Member of Allied Eastern States. Yes Yes
 Svenskt Neutral Member of North-South Concordant. Yes Yes
 Tiperyn Neutral Member of North-South Concordant. Yes Yes
 Zahava Neutral Yes Yes
 Mero-Curgovina Strained Member of Pan-Artemian Coalition. Yes Yes
File:Lonk darket.png Modrovia Strained Member of Pan-Artemian Coalition. Yes Yes
 Thuyiquakliq Strained Member of Pan-Artemian Coalition. Yes Yes
 Samotkhe Strained Member of Pan-Artemian Coalition. Yes Yes
 Seratof Strained Member of Pan-Artemian Coalition. Yes Yes
File:FlagofSterndal.png Sterndal Strained Member of Pan-Artemian Coalition. Yes Yes
 Brigantica File:Graznavaflagofficial.png Graznava People's Republic Strained Disputed territory, not recognised by the United Federated Districts of Yarova. No Yes
 Gardarike Hostile Member of Pan-Artemian Coalition. Ongoing state of war exists between the United Federated Districts of Yarova and the Gardic Realm. No Yes
File:Flag of Aukalnia and Sartland.png Aukalnia and Sartland Hostile Ongoing state of war exists between the United Federated Districts of Yarova and the United Republics of Aukalnia and Sartland. No Yes
 Osorra Neutral Yarova and Osorra are the two major Yarovar speaking nations in Anterra, and as such enjoy massive economic and cultural ties. Osorra is Yarova's largest trade partner and the two trade millions of citizens a year. However the relationship has many strains, with Yarova concerned about Osorra's human rights abuses and protectionist economic policy, while Osorra limits Yarovar migration. Still, the nations enjoy widespanning economic, scientific, and cultural cooperation. Yes Yes

Shvekshna territorial dispute

While the Ruchava Agreement guaranteed a mutual pact of non-aggression between Yarova and its western neighbour Aukalnia, Khismatullin’s presidency was marked with disgrace and the right-wing People of Yarova party was defeated by the Democratic Socialists and Progressives (DSP) in the Yarovan general election, 1995. The newly-elected President Vladimir Rodchenko was a heated opponent of Yarova’s nuclearisation and the deployment of the Federal Armed Forces into Aukalnia and Sartland. Rodchenko invited President Kapcinskas to Shchyokhov on 20 September 1995 and it was there that a controversial decision was reached regarding the so-called ‘Shvekshna/Švėkšna Question’. For the second time in the space of four years, a Yarovan president brought a major vote affecting Aukalnia to the House of Representatives. This time, however, the Yarovan president agreed with his Aukalnian counterpart.

Since the 1950 riots, it was implicitly agreed by successive Yarovan governments that the constitutional status of Shvekshna Oblast could only be altered by the principle of consent. However, as this was not codified in law, Rodchenko presented to parliament a decolonisation and reconciliation bill which proposed a Yarovan administrative withdrawal from the region and the creation of a Shvekshna Autonomous Community under the jurisdiction of the United Republics. A considerable extent of the Yarovan media lambasted Rodchenko’s bill, as did the Leader of the Opposition and President of the People of Yarova Ivan Pasternak, who accused his political rival of treason.

Yarovan Y1 tanks being deployed to assist in the handover of Shvekshna Oblast, 1997.

The day after the Act’s passing, on 21 September 1995, the oblast’s assembly in Chernyakhovsk unanimously voted to declare Shvekshna’s independence. Through the course of 1996, the Yarovan authorities gradually withdrew from the oblast, and thousands of Shvekshnars fled to the nearby Pivnichna Peremorovka Oblast. Those that remained relentlessly resisted attempted Aukalnian advances into the region, which escalated into the First Shvekshna War of 1997. Initially, the United Federated Districts offered military support to the handover but by 1998, Shchyokhov abandoned this policy.

In the Second Shvekshna War, from 1999-2000, the Aukalnians persisted in their efforts to gain control of the region but only succeeded in acquiring 20 percent of the territory. The remaining 80 percent has maintained its de facto independence to the present day (‘red zone’), and the United Federated Districts, in its closening relationship with Aukalnia, had refused to recognise its sovereignty. The issue of Shvekshna remained hotly contested in Yarovan politics, with People of Yarova party leader and federal presidential candidate Tanas Gruzdev vowing in 2019 to reunify the disputed territory with Yarova in the event of his election. Indeed, President of Aukalnia Džiugas Svidrauskas made it clear that the future of YZAGA depended on Yarova's continued policy of recognising Shvekshna as part of the United Republics.

Following Gruzdev’s victory in the Yarovan general election on 6 April 2020, gaining 213 additional seats and securing almost 80 percent of the House of Representatives’ total, the United Federated Districts dissolved YZAGA and withdrew its 9,000 troops stationed at the BSVY Dzyatlovo and BSVY Vetka bases in the Graznavan People’s Republic. Further policy shifts, including the recommencement of a nuclear weapons programme and the recognition of the Republic of Shvekshna, proved damaging to Yarova’s relationship allies. Matters were made worse on 15 April with Shchyokhov’s refusal to heed demands by Ažytėnai to withdraw from the five Yarovan military installations located in Aukalnia and Sartland. That same day, in answer to a question about the withdrawal of Yarovan troops from Aukalnia and Sartland, Gruzdev said he would not direct a military withdrawal from the five bases until the international community supported a referendum in Shvekshna.

The demands came amid allegations by the Aukalnian government that Yarova had stationed troops in and around Chernyakhovsk within the disputed territory and supplied insurgents with distinctive PKP machine guns. Within two days, the international community had reached a compromise with Shchyokhov, in an attempt to prevent any escalations. The said compromise involved the Federal Armed Forces remaining “in-house” at the five Yarovan installations in Aukalnia while an independent referendum commission was set up to execute the democratic poll in Shvekshna. However, on 20 April, intelligence reports emerged that five Yarovan nationals were gunned down by Aukalnian soldiers near the town of Grituny in Shvekshna. President Džiugas Svidrauskas claimed that the five Yarovars in question were, in fact, members of the Yarovan Land Forces, however, Shchyokhov denied this.

In response to the shootings, President Tanas Gruzdev said that he would “seek retributive justice” pending approval in a special parliamentary session to impose economic sanctions on Aukalnia and Sartland.

Campaign in Aukalnia and Sartland

On 28 April, Yarovan Federal Armed Forces tore down the 15-foot galvanised steel border barrier dividing Yarova from Shvekshna, which was once covered in barbed wire and sensors, and deployed up to 3,500 troops into the ‘red zone’ of Shvekshna. Within 24 hours, the Yarovan Air Force launched airstrikes on ten towns and several smaller settlements in the Shvekshna region, including Grituny, Salantai, Joniškėlis, and Troškūnai. The airstrikes, which were estimated to have resulted in hundreds of casualties, prompted Aukalnia and Sartland to issue a declaration of war on 30 April. The interntional community condemned the United Federated Districts for the airstrikes and the occupation of Shvekshna, and expelled the country from the organisation.

A Yarovan Sukhoi Su-34 dropping a guided bomb during a bombing mission above Aukalnia, 2020.

On 2 May, the VMFY Ishpushnya naval base on the Boreal coast was targeted by Aukalnian armed forces, Yarova retaliated by hitting Ažytėnai with the second wave of airstrikes. The death toll was estimated to be in the thousands, having decimated more than 30 percent of the Aukalnian capital. Shchyokhov’s campaign was bolstered that day by Lestykhol’s declaration of war on Aukalnia and Sartland. Aukalnian forces already stationed in the southern region attempted a counter-attack and clashed with Yarovan troops near the south-western town of Kamajai, however, being outflanked and under-resourced, the breakout attack was described as a “dismal failure”. Much of the south of the United Republics, stretching as far west as the Aukalnian border with Lienzeberg, had been successfully captured by the Federal Armed Forces by early May.

In acknowledgement of the deteriorating situation, Gardarike ordered aircraft of the Realm Air Defence to conduct a number of air raids against targets in Yarova in the early morning of 3 May, including Borisopol’s Federal Atomic Research Centre, with the intention of disabling the country's nuclear weapons programme. Yarova responded by expelling all Gardic diplomatic staff from the country and Minister for National Security and Defence Mikhail Korablyov said the Federal Armed Forces were “fully prepared for a potential second attack” by the Gardic Realm, which he said would trigger a formal declaration of war. With the Yarovan capture of Bartninkai on 5 May and the invasion of Ažytėnai by 10,000 paratroopers on 8 May, the campaign was evidently not decelerated by the Gardic bombing of Borisopol. On 9 May, a joint task force of Gardic, Modrovian and Mero-Curgovinan aircraft conducted a large air raid against various targets in the Yaro-Aukalnian borderlands region, most notably the VVSY Mikolishov air force base. In response, President Gruzdev delivered a public televised speech, declaring war on Gardarike, which he described as a “plutocratic and reactionary democracy”. This came in spite of economic pressure by the Jungastian foreign minister, Sérgio Miranda de Carvalho. Osorra similarity launched diplomatic condemnations and organized aid flights to fleeing civilians, although was unwilling to join any military or economic sanction efforts.

On 29 May, Minister Korablyov announced that Yaro-Kholak coalition forces had captured Ažytėnai after a three-week siege and an official surrender by Aukalnian General Tomas Kriugzda who charged the city’s defence garrison. Kriugzda, along with some 5,000 Aukalnian soldiers under his command were transported to internment facilities near the border with Lestykhol, where they remained for the duration of the conflict. Constant bombardment of civilian facilities, lack of food and medical supplies resulted in heavy casualties among the city's population. Coupled with the eight consecutive days of heavy airstrikes, much of the capital was reduced to unrecognisable ruin and the total number of casualties was estimated to be more than 8,000. That same day, the Yarovan Air Force launched an aerial bombardment on Gardarike’s Alatskivi Naval Air Station in Kironia. Within three days, Korablyov formally declared Yarova's occupation of the Republic of Aukalnia’s entirety and announced the date for a reunification referendum in Shvekshna as 12 June. The referendum was boycotted by Aukalnian nationalists and resulted in a conclusive victory for reunifying with Yarova. On an estimated voter turnout of 89 percent, 97.3 percent voted to rejoin the United Federated Districts.

Economy

The national economy of Yarova is rooted in the idea of progress which has, in recent years, heavily influenced the significant growth observed in the technological sector. Since 2012, Yarova has received $34.9 billion of investment in tech industries, which is, at present, the highest rate on the continent. The automotive industry is also a large contributor to the Yarovan economy, accounting for up to 30 percent of the total Yarovan industry. Notable automobile manufacturing companies in the country include Mahk-Volkona, Shykzhuko, and Litvin. Litvin manufactured over 640,000 vehicles in 2016, which was a 42.7 percent increase from 2006; of those, 63 percent were exported overseas. The aforementioned companies, as well as smaller counterparts, have come under mounting pressure from the government to develop green vehicles, which has had, thus far, mild success. The heightening popularity in carpooling, public transport, and cycling are expected to take a toll on the industry, therefore commitment in the field of green vehicle development is considered pivotal. In 2017, Shykzhuko collaborated with Litvin in the manufacturing of the Gorizont E-Class electric car, which has already won a handful of awards for its eco-friendly mechanics. The Gini coefficient, which is a reflection of the equity of income distribution amongst a population, is measured to be 31.60 in Yarova. When compared to the coefficients of other countries, Yarova is found to have relatively more inequality than the average. Yet when compared to the rest of the Slavonic world - Yarova is the near the bottom.

The Port of Khanskoye, the country's largest port.

The chemical and pharmaceutical industries are indeed central to the Yarovan economy. The second-largest producer of chemicals in the world, DKPK (Дыбенская химическая перерабатывающая корпорация), is of Yarovan origin and its headquarters is located in Khanskoye-Chirbent. The corporation employs over 65,000 workers worldwide and, in 2016, made sales of $51.1 billion. Roughly a quarter of DKPK's products are supplied to the automotive industry, particularly performance plastics. Yarova is also a major producer of ethylene oxide, various acrylates, surfactants, and cellulose resins. In recent years Yarovar chemical giants have been moving to Rovsnoska, Osorra, or Cagayan in response to growing environmental regulations, higher taxes, higher energy costs, etc.

With the collapse of Communism in Osorra and the UPRZ - Yarova has underwent severe deindustrialisation - as Yarovar companies were attracted by the low wages, strong government, minimal regulation, and abandoned industrial facilities in these countries. Since the 00s - an estimated third of Yarovar auto manufacturing jobs have gone south to either Rovsnoska, Zaporizhia, or Cagayan. Many chemical companies moved to Osorra during 2005-2010 following generous tax breaks by the Osorrai government. Deindustrialisation of much of the Yarovar interior has caused a severe social crisis with the loss of good paying jobs. Most good paying jobs into today's Yarova are in finance and software requiring a university education. The Yarovar government has created generous welfare and public housing schemes to deal with the fallout.

A Litvin car being assembled in a factory.

In rural regions, the agricultural sector flourishes and comprises of an estimated 5 percent of the overall Yarovar workforce. Dairy produce, as well as eggs, vegetables, and meats, such as beef, chicken, pork and goose, are exported and distributed across the country at sizeable rates annually. As of 2016, there were more than 910,000 commercial farms across Yarova, with a considerable concentration in the south. Agricultural conduct is monitored by the Ministry of Agricultural and Food Affairs, with close attention paid to good hygiene practice and humane treatment of livestock. Fisheries have long been a central component of Yarova's economy, with a multitude of species still capitalised to this day. However, quotas are now firmly in place which limits the exploitation of fish populations in the Sea of Irkutsk. Yarova is a major producer of grains - such as wheat, corn and soybeans.

When compared with other nations, taxation in Yarova is relatively high: with corporate tax at 25 percent, income tax from 20-55 percent, and VAT at 25 percent for most goods and services, 12.5 percent for foods including restaurant bills and hotel packages and 6.25 percent for printed material, cultural services, and transport of private persons. Services such as healthcare and education are universal, and thus, can have no tax rate attached; though private education may have a VAT of up to 20 percent.

Financial services

Yarova has a large financial services sector that contributes around 8% of the national GDP. The industry is dominated by the "big 3 banks" - National Bank of Yarova, Imperiya, and Chaykoboksarsk One. Along with these Yarova has many hedge funds, mutual funds, insurance firms, money managers, and venture capital firms that manage trillions in assets. Since the fall of communism in Osorra and deregulation schemes the financial services sector has rapidly increased in size and scope. Today Yarova has one of the largest financial industries in all of Anterra.

Chaykoboksarsk is a major center for international business and commerce - seen as a "command center" for the global economy. Over 400 banks have offices in the city - including the "big 3" and foreign banks such as QSBC and OsBank. Banking activities are concentrated within the 1 sq km district known as "Arkona". This district has a high concentration of supertall skyscrapers (over 300 meters) - having over 10. Over 150,000 employees are employed here.

The Yarovan financial services industry enjoys strong ties with the government and possess an outsized degree of influence. Monetary police is not under any public control or scrutiny as the Yarovar Central Bank is completely privately owned. While ownership details aren't publicly available many powerful noble families are thought to hold stake in the Central Bank. In the case of recession, banks are regularly bailed out and have access to numerous state subsidies. Yarova has dealt with a variety of financial crises in the last few decades due to loose financial regulations. The Yarovar financial markets remains one of the least regulated in the world with a wide variety of distinct derivative products.

Energy and resources

Yarova is richly endowed with natural resources, including coal, copper, fish, iron, lead, precious metals, rare earth elements, timber, and of course, petroleum. Approximately 45,000 million barrels of proven oil reserves are situated in eastern Yarova's substantial oil fields of Bochinovka (14,465), Roslapeysk (12,100), Buguznogorsk (9,132), Otrada (3,870), Yelerinsk (2,837), and Pozdnyakovskaya (2,143). Yarova is considered a highly attractive oil area due to its low cost of oil production (as low as $1 per barrel at some fields in 2010), low sulphur content, being classified as "sweet crude" and its proximity to other Artemian markets. However, much of Yarova remains under-explored as a result of strict federal government restrictions, and it is believed that there may be large reserves in the west of the country, especially around Lake Kapachi. Notable oil exploration and production companies of Yarovan origin include the Yarova National Gas and Petroleum Corporation, Stremit'sya Neft', Oborian and Ovragnyy-Zhemchuzhina. Jungastian multinational corporation Petrostado and Osorrai OsorraPec operate three gas-to-liquid plants in Yarova, and are in partnership with the federal government to develop the country's oil sands.

Oil derricks at Cherenzuluk, Bochinovka Oblast.

The petroleum industry first took off in Yarova in the 1930s, with the 1931 discovery of a large reserve near the town of Samariysk in Otrada Oblast. Otrada quickly became one of the leading oil-producing oblasts in the United Federated Districts, along with Bochinovka and Buguznogorsk. Soon reserves were found across eastern Yarova and wells were also constructed in districts to the south, in North Roslapeysk, Yelerinsk, and East Pozdnyakovskaya. Although limited reserves of oil had been struck during the 19th century under Vojiskiy rule, the find near Samariysk in 1931 gained national attention, spurring exploration and development that continued through the 1930s and beyond, launching an era of change in Eastern Yarova.

This period had a transformative effect on the districts that soon became collectively known as the "Oil Oblasts". At the turn of the century, Eastern Yarova was predominantly rural with no large cities. By the end of 1930s, much of the region was heavily industrialised, and the populations of eastern cities had broken into the top 20 nationally. Kogalma and Borisopol were among the greatest beneficiaries of the boom, and the cities became home to some of the largest concentration of refineries and petrochemical plants in the world. Since the boom, the Yarovan petroleum industry has thrived as a result of burgeoning demand, both nationally and internationally. In 2019, Yarova produced an average of 8.35 million barrels per day of crude oil.

Quarrying, coal mining and especially the extraction of petroleum continue to take place in parts of Yarova, with the latter contributing heavily to the nation's energy supply. However, the demand for coal power and petroleum as an energy source have been soothed, owing to the expansion of renewable energy generation, such as wind power, biomass and solar power. There are currently 20 functioning nuclear reactors in Yarova with a net capacity of 21,320 megawatts (MW). 26.8 percent of Yarova's energy source is renewable; extensive efforts are currently underway to reach in or around 100 percent by 2060. The Grigorievna administration has already invested $40 billion to accomplish this goal, with the establishment of several large-scale wind farm projects. The Yarovar financial sector has introduced so called "carbon credits" and "environmental and social governance" to smoothen the national transition to clean energy.

Infrastructure

Last year, the state-owned United Federated Districts Railway (Железная дорога объединенных федеральных округов) accounted for 2.3 percent of Yarova's GDP. The percentage of freight and passenger traffic that goes by rail is unknown since no official statistics are available for private transportation such as private automobiles or company-owned trucks. In 2016, it is estimated approximately 250 million passengers and 390 million tonnes of freight went via United Federated Districts Railway. That same year, the company owned 4,850 goods and passenger locomotives, 6,000 passenger cars (carriages) and 121,100 freight cars (goods wagons). A further 67,500 freight cars in Yarova are privately owned. In 2019, Yarova had 11,750 kilometres of common-carrier railroad line, of which about half was electrified and carried most of the traffic; over 40 percent was double track or better. The expansion of the railroad lines, the most recent of which took place from 2005-2013 and saw an area increase of 10 percent, has resulted in lower costs of production, increased net output for the national economy, widening labour catchment areas, increased competition, increased inward investment, and previously inaccessible sites being opened for development.

Aerial view of Chaykoboksarsk International Airport, Samadnoye, Yarova's largest and busiest airport.

The second-largest direction of planned infrastructure investments is road and bridge construction. This mainly includes projects under the jurisdiction of the Ministry for Transport and Communications in the Yarovan federal transport strategy through to 2030. Yarova has approximately 2,300,000 kilometres of roads, of which 760,000 kilometres are non-local roads.

Part of the Ambar Expressway where it transitions from bridge to tunnel.

The Avtoshosse (Автошоссе), the Yarovan federal highway system, where no local speed limit is posted (advisory limit of 130 km/h), had a total length of about 20,250 kilometres (12,583 mi) in 2016 - stretching from Zatish'ye to Vhekvitili-Vyshika. Only federally built controlled-access highways meeting certain construction standards including at least two lanes per direction are called "Avtoshosse". They have their own, orange-coloured signs and numbering system.

In the 1980s, the Yarovan government launched two ambitious construction projects - the Pirallahi Bridge and the Ambar Expressway. The Pirallahi Bridge network, a pair of parallel bridges which were first constructed in 1982, spans the 5-kilometre Strait of Pirallahi and connects Goranboy and the island of Ulyagir. While the larger Ambar Expressway, which was completed in 1989 and stretches 25 kilometres beneath the Ambar Passage between Ulyagir and Pylëvo, is the third-longest undersea portion railway tunnel in the world. The construction of the Ambar Expressway cost just over $9 billion and was highly criticised by some as grossly misspending public funds. Proponents of the tunnel emphasised the advantages of greater land-based connectivity to Komki Nuclear Power Plant and the country's largest naval base at Balavda.

The expansion of railway and highways have made airlines decreasingly competitive within the United Federated Districts. In 2019, there were a total of 34 heliports, 413 airports with paved runways and 266 with unpaved runways in Yarova. Chaykoboksarsk International Airport, Samadnoye is Yarova's largest airport, a major transportation hub in Eastern Artemia, and the world's tenth busiest airport. Yarova's second-biggest international airport is Gima Dadei International Airport in Minerinsk-Belgorod, followed by Vitaliy Simakin International Airport, which serves the Greater Cheskovsk-Yumarapol Metropolitan Area.

Tourism

With 61 million tourists in 2018, Yarova is ranked as the fifth most popular tourist destination in the world and the third in Artemia, an increase of 8 percent from 2017. This 61 million figure excludes people staying less than 24 hours, such as Western Artemians on layovers in Yarovan airports on their way to the Far East of Kesh or Osorrai layovers into Artemia. It is seventh in income from tourism due to shorter duration of visits. The most popular tourist sites in terms of annual visitors include: the Bastion Tower (3.4 million), the Imperial Palace (2.7 million), the Vorola district (1.2 million), the Great Ana Palace (1.1 million), Dhomozakhov National Park (683,000), and the Belen'kaya Gallery (529,000).


Chaykoboksarsk

Tourism is a vital industry for Chaykoboksarsk, Yarova’s largest city, which has witnessed a growing combined volume of international and domestic tourists, receiving a sixth consecutive annual record of approximately 25 million visitors in 2018. Approximately 10 million visitors to Chaykoboksarsk were from outside the United Federated Districts of Yarova, with the highest numbers from Zaporizhia, Legantus, Brigantica, Vallis, and Jungastia. Chaykoboksarsk has been christened by the municipal government the “Rainbow City” as the basis for its ongoing advertising campaign, with the aim of attracting LGBTQ+ tourism. Such tourism is often heavily condemned in the media of other Slavonic countries. Major tourist destinations include the Bastion Tower, the Vorola district theatre productions, the Novoalexandrovsk Embankment, luxury shopping along the Samara and Boruch Boulevards, and events such as the Chaykoboksarsk Pride March. Sex tourism to the city's red-light district is well-received. Chaykoboksarsk is also known for its drinking culture, casinos, raves, and lack of law enforcement on public recreational usage of marijuana.

The Bastion Tower in Chaykoboksarsk, the world’s third-tallest building.

Construction of the world-famous Bastion Tower was completed in 2017 and it stands an impressive 600 metres (1,968.5 ft) in height, making it the third-tallest building on the globe. Kasvipat, the main tourist area of the city, was estimated to have 75,000 hotel rooms in 2019, a 5 percent increase from the previous year. The area is home to the first Diamond Makar International Hotel and Casino. Georgiy Makar, Chaykoboksark native and CEO with a net worth of $1 billion, runs an international organisation comprising 35 luxury hotels across the world. The Diamond Makar Hotel in Chaykoboksarsk was rated the second most expensive in Artemia in 2020. The same year, the Osorrai Tourist Board crowned Chaykoboksarsk the “Least Child-Friendly City in Artemia”. Still, millions of Osorrai visit the city every year.

Cheskovsk

As shopping has grown over time as a motive to travel and has become a major tourist activity, Cheskovsk has emerged as the country's second most popular city for visitors. Cheskovsk's status as the Yarovan ‘City of Fashion’, propelled by its hosting of the biannual Cheskovsk Fashion Week, certainly aided in its attraction of 13 million tourists in 2019. Indeed, the internationally-renowned fashion houses of Safin, Ivanovich, Amerhan, Brezhnev, and Kazi & Yaldin are all based in the city and their luxury stores have remained tourist favourites, with the common spectacle of long queues sprawling down the busiest commercial streets. Up to 50 percent of sales of luxury goods in Yarova are generated by foreigners and global travel generates as much as 35 percent of total sales of luxury goods. Cheskovsk is also known for its Vysokaya Zhizn' Festival, a month-long event of contemporary performing arts. The Constructivist architecture which is widespread throughout the city is also appreciated by both domestic and international visitors.

Other cities

In terms of numbers of overnight stays, travel to the ten largest cities in the United Federated Districts more than doubled between 2000 and 2010, the largest increase of any travel destination in the country. This increase mainly arises from growth of cultural tourism, often in conjunction with educational or business travel. As a knock-on effect, the provision and supply of more and higher standards of cultural, entertainment, hospitality, gastronomic, and retail services also continue to attract more international guests.

The Yarovan capital of Shchyokhov has one of the fastest-growing tourism industries in the country. In 2011, more than 4,105,110 visitors with 7,522,428 overnight stays visited the city. The tourism sector employs more than 295,250 people full-time and brings in revenue of $10.6 billion, making the tourism industry a major economic force in the Shchyokhov area. Key tourist destinations in the city include the Imperial Palace, once the primary residence of the formidable Vojiskiy dynasty which was stormed during the Second Civil War, and the Surkov Palace, the largest parliament building in the world. Other Yarovan cities which welcome millions of tourists every year include Minerinsk-Belgorod (the Yarovan technological metropolis), Khanskoye-Chirbent (a favourite for sea food enthusiasts), Borisopol (known for its rodeo), and Kapachi (where water sports is in high demand).

The famous spaceship-shaped water tower in Cherenzuluk, Bochinovka Oblast.

Cherenzuluk UFO tourism

The remote town of Cherenzuluk in south-eastern Bochinovka Oblast has achieved a considerable amount of fame among UFO aficionados owing to the so-called Cherenzuluk UFO incident in 1986, in which three extraterrestrial beings described as “little grey men” crash-landed in the nearby grasslands. It is alleged by people in those circles that the creatures were captured by the Yarovan Land Forces and were experimented on at a military installation just outside of Sosotroitsk. The claims caused mass hysteria in Bochinovka throughout the 1980s and has resulted in the common phenomenon of UFO sightings across the oblast, which persists to the present day. Many residents claim to see objects shaped like “black triangles” in the sky. Successive Bochinovka district governments have reaped the economic benefits of these sightings, however, as Cherenzuluk began to experience an unprecedented volume of visitors. The town is now a popular tourist destination and features many alien-themed bars, restaurants, hotels, and casinos. Perhaps the most famous of all is the water tower shaped like a flying saucer.

Dhomozakhov National Park and other protected areas

Dhomozakhov National Park, the largest protected area in the United Federated Districts, is located in the oblasts of Smirnova, Irinovskiy, and Sredinokovo. Although the vast majority of parks are off-limits to visitors for 40 weeks of the year, most accessible areas of Dhomozakhov were only closed for 20 weeks. In 2020, the federal government under President Gruzdev opened the park up to the public for a further 10 weeks a year, in efforts to maximise the profits of tourism to the north-west of the country. Other national parks are also regular tourist destinations but the restrictions have hindered growth in this sector. Dhomozakhov is home to a large component of the Karbykan mountain range, with the fourth-largest mountain of Gudja often ‘conquered’ by mountaineers. Other tourist activities often enjoyed in the park include birdwatching, hiking, skiing, mountain biking, and fly fishing. Indeed, the economic importance of tourism in the north-west can be observed with the proportion of employees in the sector among residents, accounting for one in eight Smirnovan jobs in 2017.

Water supply and sanitation

In the United Federated Districts, water supply and sewage disposal are, by law, the responsibility of the respective oblasts and free cities. Under municipal control and with financial support from the federal government, intensive construction of treatment plants was carried out during the 1960s and 1970s. Today, 95 percent of the wastewater is treated both biologically and chemically and as much as 50 percent also go through special nitrogen removal. Water supply and sewage disposal infrastructure for district use encompasses more than 22,000 waterworks, 305,000 kilometres of water pipes, around 20,500 sewage treatment plants and 415,000 kilometres of sewers. In total, some 68,000 people work in the sector.

The Public Clean Water Supply and Management Act states that it is a federated district’s responsibility to arrange sufficient water supply and sewage treatment services to assure its population good health. The law also articulates that water charges are not to exceed necessary costs to provide the services, and that charges only can be used within the water sector. Consequently, district governments cannot earn money to be used in other sectors, and potential private owners cannot expect to pay profit-based dividends to their shareholders. Today, all 29 of Yarova’s federated districts cover their costs for water and wastewater services solely through water charges. Five Yarovan free cities have partially-private ownership of their water and wastewater services, Cheskovsk, Borisopol, Khanskoye-Chirbent, Kogalma and Yumarapol.

Efficient wastewater treatment, good drinking water quality, low water charges and a reliable supply makes the Yarovan water sector more or less invisible to the public. Yarovars tend to take the functioning water and sanitation sector for granted and, thus, consumer water organisations do not exist in the country. Strong self-government and district responsibility also makes the issue uninteresting to national politicians, with discussions and debates with water professionals about water and sanitation services usually left to district-level politicians. But, beginning in the 2000s, Yarova began to experience a trend toward some privatisation of facilities through private ownership and public-private partnerships. This development ignited a contentious debate among water professionals and local politicians and also attracted some national interest. Since three of the five free cities who sold aspects of their services to private companies between 2001 and 2005 were governed by the Democratic Socialists and Progressives, the privatisation debate has not polarised the political left. The People of Yarova have advocated for further privatisation in the districts, and in July 2020, the government of Pozdnyakovskaya announced it would be selling shares of its water supply service to a private company.

Security and defence

Yarova’s military, the Federal Armed Forces of Yarova (Федеральные Вооруженные силы Яроваиский), comprises of the Land Forces, Air Force, Navy and Border Guard. In absolute terms, Yarovan military expenditure is the 17th highest in the world. In 2020, military spending was $110.4 billion, about 3.0 percent of the country’s GDP. As of 2017, the Federal Armed Forces employed roughly 559,225 active personnel, including about 37,500 volunteers. Reservists are available to the Armed Forces and participate in defence exercises and deployments. Since 1990, women may serve in all functions of service without restriction, as may openly gay and trans personnel, effected in 1995. Approximately 86,587 female soldiers are on active duty. There is no conscription in Yarova. In peacetime, the Federal Armed Forces are commanded by the Minister for National Security and Defence. In a state of emergency, the President would become commander-in-chief of the Federal Armed Forces.

A Yarovan police car, 2018.

In 1992, a historic vote took place in the House of Representatives which paved the way for the authorisation of the Federal Armed Forces to militarily intervene overseas in the event of presidential assent. However, following the political fallout that flared up after the disastrous Yaro-Aukalnian War from 1992-1993, the Supreme Court explicitly declared military intervention outside of Yarovan sovereign territory unconstitutional in 1995. In order to settle the matter, in 1996, the Rodchenko administration organised a nationwide referendum which resulted in this defence-only mechanism being implemented in the Constitution of Yarova. After the vote, the role of the Federal Armed Forces was described in the national constitution as defensive only, although a second referendum held in May 2007 passed with 51.8 percent in favour of amending this in the second subsection of Article 18. After proceedings in the House of Representatives and at federal-level later that year, the United Federated Districts was then once again enabled to engage in military operations overseas. Yarova currently plays an integral role in the military strategies of the Allied Eastern States, and the Ministry of National Security and Defence has pledged to the mutual-defence policy with Zaporizhia.

The Police of Yarova (Полиция Ыаровьскиы) is the government agency responsible for general policing and law enforcement matters in Yarova. The Police of Yarova is subordinate to the Ministry of National Security and Defence and consists of the Federal Police Board (Федеральный полицейский совет), 30 national police units and 4,228 localised police departments, ranging from municipal and county agencies to university campus patrols. However, the policing units are largely independent and are enabled to enact their own district laws, granted such are in compliance with federal regulations. The Department for Domestic Cohesion and Protection (DDCP) (Отдел внутренней сплоченности и защиты) is accountable for the majority of law enforcement duties at federal level, with agencies such as the Federal Immigration, Customs and Frontier Protection (FICFP) (Федеральная защита иммиграции, таможни и границы), the Federal Intelligence Agency (FRU) (Федеральное разведывательное управление), the Federal Illegal Substances Enforcement Agency (FISEA) (Федеральное агентство по контролю за незаконными веществами), Federal Incarceration and Rehabilitation Management Service (FIRMS) (Федеральное агентство по лишению свободы и реабилитации), and the Federal Coast Guard (FCG) (Федеральная береговая охрана).

Military

According to official statistics from the federal government dated from 2018, the Federal Armed Forces of Yarova operated: 2,195 main battle tanks, 1 aircraft carrier, 4 amphibious warfare ships, 12 destroyers, 4 frigates, 21 corvettes, 5 non-nuclear submarines, 987 military aircraft, 285 attack helicopters, and 5 military satellites. That same year, the Land Forces had 203,075 active personnel, the Air Force had 170,550, the Navy had 132,750, and the Border Guard had a total workforce of 52,850. In terms of nuclear weapons, the United Federated Districts is de facto regarded as a technologically-capable country, having previously dismantled its eight nuclear armaments. The primary responsibilities of the Federal Armed Forces are the protection of Yarova’s borders, combat on land, sea, and in the air, the security of occupied territories, and the defeat of enemy troops. The Federal Armed Forces must be capable of protecting the national interests of the United Federated Districts within the framework of its international obligations. Since 1984, under military reforms during the presidency of Danila Christov, the country has been divided into four respective military districts (Военный округ): West-Central Military District (headquartered in Shchyokhov), Southern Military District (headquartered in Balavda), Eastern Military District (headquartered in Sosotroitsk), and Maugorod Military District (headquartered in Maugorod).

The Stoykiy (Стойкий), the sole aircraft carrier of the United Federated Districts.

The Federal Armed Forces administer three military installations in Zaporizhia: the VMFY Shubuga naval station on the south-western tip of the Zaporizhian peninsula, the VMFY Moratov naval station on the north-eastern coast, and the VVSY Prokovyurt air force base, near the frontier with Rovsnoska. Since 2010, the Yarovan Land Forces have been stationed at BSVY Dzyatlovo and BSVY Vetka in the Graznava People's Republic - with a current total of 4,330 and 5,046 personnel respectively. Over time, after the democratisation of Aukalnia and Sartland, the Federal Armed Forces of Yarova have established five military installations within the sovereign territory of the former rival country. The Yarovan Navy manage two naval stations on the Boreal coast, namely VMFY Pitragrad in Ruchava, Republic of Sartland, and VMFY Ishpushnya, near Ažytėnai in the Republic of Aukalnia. The Land Forces are stationed at BSVY Fort Strevininsk, overlooking the eastern frontier with the isolated Republic of Lestykhol, and BSVY Grobinsk in Grobina, Republic of Sartland. The Air Force assumed control of VVSY Mikolishov (formerly Mikolishkis) in 2016, as a strategic base for training, security, and surveillance.

A Sukhoi Su-33 on the Stoykiy's flight deck, 2008.

The strained diplomatic relationship the United Federated Districts shares with a number of its neighbours has necessitated a concentrated presence of the Federal Armed Forces along much of the 680-kilometre border with Lestykhol to the north, the entirety of the 185-kilometre border with Shvekshna to the north-west, and along the 525-kilometre border with Rovsnoska to the south-west. More than 90 percent of the frontier with Lestykhol comprises of the treacherous and imposing Karbykan mountains, and the two countries share only two border checkpoints - located beyond Yekayartsk in Smirnova Oblast. The physical boundary carved up by the Karbykans has kept tensions between the two countries to a minimum, however, the Land Forces continue to carry out regular exercises in Dhomozakhov National Park. Following the withdrawal of the Federal Armed Forces from Shvekshna in May 1998, the federal Ministry for National Security and Defence announced that the window of time for residents of the former oblast to relocate to the United Federated Districts had lapsed. Controversially, shortly after the announcement, the Yarovan military commenced the construction of a 15-foot galvanised steel border barrier dividing Yarova from Shvekshna, covered in barbed wire and sensors. The Rodchenko administration cited security concerns of Kholak-assisted terrorist infiltration. Since its erection, the barrier has been subject to attempted vandalism by protestors - most notably in 2009, when two demonstrators equipped with deadly weapons were shot dead by the Border Guard. In spite of the heavily-protected barrier, there exists one border crossing with the disputed territory, situated at the town of Sibargan in Pivnichna Peremorovka Oblast.

The commitments of common defence outlined in the membership of YZAGA had resulted in the United Federated Districts adopting an official stance on the dispute between Rovsnoska and the Graznava People’s Republic; favouring the territorial integrity and political independence of the latter. As well as the operation of BSVY Dzyatlovo, BSVY Vetka, and VVSY Prokovyurt in proximity to Rovsnoska from the Graznavan and Zaporizhian sides, Yarova’s third-largest air force installation is located at VVSY Kaspilchik in Khomustatskaya Oblast, less than five kilometres from the border. In addition to this, the BSVY Yekateryol Land Forces base in Leont'yevskaya Oblast, also situated within five kilometres of the Yarova-Rovsnoska border, reportedly facilitates a total of 45,210 assigned soldiers and 8,750 civilian employees. The troops stationed at BSVY Yekateryol, often considered the “first line of defence”, train in Nazan National Park along the border with the GPR. In the 1990s, during the Rovski-Zaporizhian conflict, the Federal Armed Forces assisted in humanitarian missions to take in refugees crowding at the volatile southern border, most of whom were ethnic Rovsnoskis. President Tanas Gruzdev ordered the military withdrawal of Graznava on 14 April, which paved the way for Rovsnoska's invasion of the disputed state.

Crime

Yarovan organised crime or the Yarovan mafia, otherwise known as the Sem'ya (Yarovan: Семья tr. Sem'ya, lit. “family”), is a collective of various organised crime elements originating in the former Vojiskiy Empire. Such criminality can be traced back as far as the early eighteenth century CE, in the form of banditry and thievery. The majority of the Yarovan population during that period were peasants living in impoverished conditions, and criminals who appropriated from imperial government entities and divvied up the profits among the people earned a heroic outlaw status. Gradually, these criminals grouped together and started their own code of conduct, centred around strict loyalty with one another and opposition against the government. Indeed, the Vojiskiy establishment labelled the Republican Front and other secessionist groups during the Second Civil War as “the Sem'ya”.

It is estimated that nearly 5 percent of Yarovan youth are regular drug-users.

Post-imperial collapse, presidents Vitaliy Simakin and Rusya Tarasovich attempted to wipe out organised crime, with initial offers of amnesty lasting until 1930, but failed. In the early years of the United Federated Districts, the Sem'ya capitalised off the illegality of automatic assault weapons in most of the oblasts and cities of Yarova Proper, smuggling firearms in from the then-United Provinces of Rovsnoska and Zaporizhia. The Sem'ya also emerged as the chief perpetrators in contract killing, as well as drug and sex trafficking in Yarova and wider Eastern Artemia, especially Zaporizhia. In the 1980s, the Danila Christov administration was accused of colluding with the Sem'ya, however, such allegations were refuted.

Today, there are an estimated 6,500 Sem'ya groups, up to 150 of which have been identified to wield a world-wide influence, with a sizeable presence in Western and Central Artemia. Over the past two decades, organised crime has increased three-fold in the United Federated Districts, and more than 250,000 people are estimated by the Department for Domestic Cohesion and Protection (DDCP) to be members. The DDCP recognise the Sem'ya to be involved in ten principal varieties of illegal activity: arms, assassination, drugs, extortion, gambling, protection, prostitution, child abuction, money laundering, and cyber crime. Extortion has been committed by organisation members via online and offline media, such as threats and damage to property and life. Some groups have been linked to Yarovan celebrities and have, in the past, hosted popular fashion and sporting events.

Automatic rifles seized by law enforcement after a large-scale operation targeting the Sem'ya.

Human trafficking was referred to by former president Konstantina Grigorievna in 2016 as an "unfaltering dimension" to the Sem'ya's core illegal businesses. Young people, especially women and girls, have fallen victim to trafficking and are subjected to sexual exploitation, debt bondage, and forced labour. Many have also been used for fake advertisements and mail order bride catalogues. Associations with terrorist organisations and drug cartels are well-documented. In 2018, it was estimated that 2.7 million Yarovars are regular drug-users, almost 5 percent of the country’s youth population. Western Artemia is a prime foreign market for the Sem'ya’s illegal drugs trade.

The amorphous organisational structure of these groups has made it increasingly difficult for the government to obtain an insight into the workings of the Sem'ya. However, infiltrators and whistleblowers have learnt that the structure is loosely as follows: the Pakhan (or “Boss”) who oversees all activity within an individual organisation, the Sovietnik which is a support group to the Pakhan that ensures loyalty among the subordinates and prevents any members becoming too powerful, the Obschak which is a security group, the Avtoriyet who leads a small group of members, and the Boyevik who is a recruiter and part of the main strike force. The Sem'ya are thought to account for up to 4 percent of illicit world trade.

Crisis management

The Department for Domestic Cohesion and Protection set up the Federal Crisis Management Agency (FAAU) (Федеральное агентство по антикризисному управлению) following the 1957 Eastern Artemian earthquake and tsunami which recorded wave heights of up to 16 metres and claimed the lives of 39 people in the United Federated Districts. The organisation consists of employees ranging from environmental scientists to military personnel.

The Federal Crisis Management Agency (FAAU) have assessed climate change’s impact on agriculture, including earlier spring crops.

The federal government recognises two categories of crises which necessitate the use of different crisis management strategies, namely: natural disasters (hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, storms, or other major adverse events caused by the natural processes of Anterra), and man-made disasters (civil disorder, risk of hazardous materials on the environment, technological malfunctions, terrorism, or war).

A Yarovan counter-terrorism unit.

Along with recovery procedures, the FAAU are tasked with risk management, which involves the assessment of potential threats and identifying the best ways to avoid those threats. Since its foundation, the FAAU have overseen a series of crises and near-crises that have impacted the national security of the United Federated Districts and its territories, most notably the Dzyunakaz steppe conflict of the 1960s, the Yaro-Aukalnian War from 1992-1993, and the transfer of Shvekshna Oblast to Aukalnia and Sartland in 1998.

In 2001, the Yarovan government, with the counsel of the FAAU, officially identified climate change as the “greatest threat facing humanity” and declared it a level 5 crisis, the highest on their crisis management scale. Coastal erosion and rising sea levels have resulted in the complete disappearance of three remote islands in the Maugorod archipelago since 2008, and contamination of underwater ground supplies have left numerous indigenous Latangan communities reliant on rainwater. On the mainland, climate change has led to temperature increase, which at higher northern latitudes has exceeded historical records. Climate change's most significant effects on Yarova include: agricultural and forestry management, such as earlier spring planting of crops, higher frequency of wildfires, alterations in disturbance of forests due to pests, increased health risks due to heat-waves, changes in infectious diseases and allergenic pollen, and changes in human activities in the country’s far north. In accordance with Shchyokhov’s declaration, the International Pact on Defeating Climate Change (IPDCC) was tabled at cross-party committee talks and later that year. In 2011, President Chekudayev also pledged to support non-profit environmentalist organisations, including the Tethys Community Climate Change Centre (OTIKST) based in Fusi, Salua.

Demography

Ethnic groups in Yarova
Yarovars (61,996,691)
  
55.84%
Turkish Yarovars (7,471,128)
  
6.37%
Peremorovkars (7,360,049)
  
7.57%
Black Yarovars (1,776,196.88)
  
1.60%
Kartvelians (1,959,864)
  
2.01%
Kryzhelovskis (1,803,697)
  
1.85%
Hayastanis (1,711,986)
  
1.76%
Vainakhs (1,477,085)
  
1.52%
Circassians (788,497)
  
0.81%
Denizstanis (416,804)
  
0.43%
Trukhmens (393,999)
  
0.41%
Roma (355,882)
  
0.37%
Balkars (184,22)
  
0.19%
Latangans (167,842)
  
0.17%
Abkhaz (81,877)
  
0.08%
Oirats (67,559)
  
0.07%
Kumyks (50,337)
  
0.05%
Azeris (46,363)
  
0.05%
West Yarovan Tatars (36,505)
  
0.04%
Nogais (7,948)
  
0.008%
Other (18,255,972)
  
18.78%

Historically, Yarova has always been a heterogenous nation with a wide range of diverse and distinct indigenous ethnic groups, certainly not limited to ethnic Yarovars. Although the largest ethnic group nationally and in 27 of the 29 federated districts, Yarovars comprise only 50.7 percent of the overall population, numbering some 49,321,275 people. The government recognises 16 official minority indigenous populations, namely: the Peremorovkars, Kryzhelovskis, Kartvelians, Denizstanis (Aghuls, Avars, Dargins, Laks, Lezgins, Rutuls and Tabasarans), Hayastanis, Circassians, (Adyghes and Kabardians), Leont'yevskaya Tatars, Yelerinsk Turkmens, Vainakhs (Chechens and the Ingush), Balkars, Nogais, Kumyks, the Abkhaz, Azeris, Yarovar Oirats, and Latangans. Ashkenazi Jews have resided within Yarova's borders since the twelfth century CE, but attempts thus far to gain significant government protections for Ashkenazi culture and the Yiddish language (other than local-level grants) have been mostly unfruitful.

Kartvelian peasant near Rustavi in Kropokhovo, c. 1890 CE.

Since the turn of the twentieth century CE, the country has observed a consistent and sizeable influx of East-Keshian immigrants (particularly of Toliman origin), which now constitute the second-largest ethnic group in the nation as classified by the national census. Mainly focused on urbanised locations, other large immigrant-descended communities include West-Keshians/Black Yarovars, Roma and Osorrais.

The southern regions of Yarova, particularly those surrounding the Dzyunakaz Steppe and the Khanskoye Delta (Kellerovo, Pozdnyakovskaya, Kogalma, Yelerinsk and Roslapeysk), encompass the homelands of the native Abkhazo-Adyghean, Hayastani, Turkic and Nakh-Denizstani peoples. Such peoples were overwhelmed by substantial masses of ethnic Yarovar settlers during the seventeenth and eighteenth-century Vojiskiy-sponsored Plantations of the Dzyunakaz. However, the majority of the region's cultures have survived into the modern-day and remain dominant in concentrated locations. The Ubykh language of Khomustatskaya suffered a major decline in the years following the Vojiskiy conquest and finally became extinct by the 1920s.

As of 2017, the birth rate in Yarova is 11.90 per 1,000 people, with the death rate currently at 9.2 per 1,000 people. The average life expectancy is 81.5 years, with females living to an average of 83.9 years and males 79.1 years. The total fertility rate is 1.80 children born per woman. The homicide rate is 0.92 per 100,000 inhabitants, very low considering the large overall population.

The 2010 federal census introduced an optional question based upon sexual orientation: ‘Which sexual orientation do you identify with?’ a) Wholly Heterosexual b) Mostly Heterosexual c) Bisexual d) Mostly Homosexual e) Wholly Homosexual f) Other (Please specify). 83.1 percent said they were wholly heterosexual; 3.3 percent said they were mostly heterosexual; 6.2 percent said they were bisexual; 0.9 percent said they were mostly homosexual; 4.6 percent said they were wholly homosexual. The census also facilitated transgender and genderqueer/nonbinary options for the first time, pursuant of legislation: 1.1 percent of Yarovar respondents identified as trans people, whereas 0.2 percent marked genderqueer. The sexuality and gender identity section was, by and large, vigorously defended by LGBT organisations in Yarova.

Cities

Yarova is a highly urbanised country, with its largest cities (in terms of metropolitan area population in 2016) being Chaykoboksarsk (11,931,156), Minerinsk-Belgorod (9,361,041), Cheskovsk (7,508,100), Yumarapol (7,457,764), Kogalma (6,593,290), Khanskoye-Chirbent (6,079,643), Borisopol (5,160,074), Kapachi (3,114,152), Shchyokhov (1,861,008), and Abramivka (1,147,320). Throughout the 20th century, rural exodus was a contentious political issue, and this migratory pattern continues to the present day. Chaykoboksarsk, Minerinsk-Belgorod, Cheskovsk, Yumarapol and Khanskoye-Chirbent are oftentimes referred to as the Bol’shaya Pyaterka (Большая Пятерка) or ‘Big Five’, as they serve as major international centres of finance, commerce and the arts. Shchyokhov, being the federal capital, acts as the political and judicial centre of the United Federated Districts. The ‘Big Five’, along with Shchyokhov, Kogalma and Borisopol, are the only urbanised areas with their own district-level governments - other cities are categorised as either mayoral (e.g. Abramivka) or unincorporated (e.g. Samadnoye). Approximately 72 percent of the overall Yarovan population live in urbanised areas.

Religion

Since the Baptism of Ljudia in 988 CE when the East Slavic confederation was declared a Christian state, Yarova has possessed a distinctive Christian heritage. By the 11th century CE, the Eastern Orthodox churches finally broke communion with the Western Catholic Church after centuries of gradual divergence, with the former accusing the latter of “Judaistic tendencies and practices”. As the Ecumenical Church’s scope of direct rule weakened in the mid-15th century, numerous autocephalous (“self-headed”) churches were established. The Yarovan Orthodox Church, known as the Svogda Patriarchate, emerged as the largest of the world’s Eastern Orthodox churches after declaring independence in 1498 CE. Disputes over the supremacy of the Svogda Patriarchate became prevalent after the First Yarovan Civil War and during the Vojiskiy Empire’s Vostochnoye Gospodstvo period of expansion from the early-16th century onwards. This was due to the fact smaller Eastern Orthodox churches such as the now-defunct Zatish’ye Patriarchate and the Kartvelian Orthodox Church, were forcibly subjugated by the Svogda Patriarchate. Other religious movements in newly-acquired territories, such as Islam which prevailed in the Dzyunakaz, were outlawed upon conquest. Islam was formally asserted to be illegal in 1705, although few among the southern minorities voluntarily converted to Christianity. The Hayastani minority, who were mostly adherents of the ancient Hayastani Apostolic Church, were eventually granted religious protection by the Vojiskiys, owing to the fact Hayastan was regarded as a valuable “island of Christendom in a sea of Moslems”. The Svogda Patriarchate remained the official state religion until the Yarovan Empire’s collapse in 1926.

The Mosque of Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah in Khankalgorod, the largest in the United Federated Districts.
Religiosity in Yarova
Atheism
  
34.1%
Svogda Patriarchate
(Yarovan Orthodox)
  
29.43%
Islam
  
21.76%
Kapachi Patriarchate
(Peremorovkan Orthodox)
  
3.52%
Judaism
  
1.41%
Spiritual but not religious
  
1.02%
Other
  
8.05%

As of 2017, the Svogda Patriarchate is the largest religious organisation in the United Federated Districts, with a following totalling 29.43 percent of the populace. Whereas, the Kapachi Patriarchate, an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church which declared self-rule within the Svogda Patriarchate in 1997, is the most common faith of Peremorovkars at 3.52 percent. Notably, the Kapachi Patriarchate has not adopted the wider Svogda Patriarchate’s recent landmark ruling on LGBT inclusivity. Neither have Tanets Solstana organizations in the country. Since the foundation of the republic, Yarova has established a secular system and a right of religious freedom. It is unconstitutional for the federal government to make any attempts in encouraging organised religion, thus does not give any religion or denomination a special status. Additionally, the government does not de jure recognise the existence of such organisations or the authority of their leaders, but approves of “peaceful spiritual activity” and the only interaction is for tax purposes. Furthermore, it is claimed that 34.81 percent of Yarovars are irreligious, though this figure has been disputed on several occasions. Yarovars in the age range of 18-29 years are increasingly atheist, with estimates putting the number of irreligious at 51% percent.

The second-largest religious movement in Yarova is Islam, totalling some 21.76 percent, and is the majority faith in the oblasts of Pozdnyakovskaya and Roslapeysk. There are some 13,000 mosques located in the United Federated Districts, and the largest is the Mosque of Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah in Khankalgorod, Pozdnyakovskaya Oblast. Sunni Islam is by far the primary branch of Islam in Yarova, with strong populations among the Dzokharians, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Meshalians and Denizstanis, while Shia Muslims, who total 10 percent of all Yarovan Muslims, can be found in communities of Azeri, Lezgins, Laks, Kabardians, and some Kartvelians. There are also sizeable populations of Jews, Hindus, Buddhists, Mormons and Pentecostals in Yarova. In Smirnova Oblast, an Anabaptist Amish farming community of 125 can be found in the isolated village of Mokhov.

Education

The literacy rate of Yarova is 98.51 percent according to the 2010 census. The United Federated Districts has a free and public school system, and eleven years of education are mandatory, although you must be at least sixteen years of age to drop out of schooling. The levels of education are primary, secondary and tertiary. One sitting of the Base examinations (Базовые экзамены) is necessary before exiting education. Those that opt to remain in school continue for another three years before completing the Higher examinations (Высшие экзамены). Mature citizens who have withdrawn from secondary school prior to graduation in the past are given the opportunity to partake in the PVZGO (Программа возвращения зрелых граждан к образованию) to further their qualifications. There were 65,371 secondary schools in Yarova in 2010.

The main hall of the University of Chaykoboksarsk (CU), one of Yarova's most prestigious universities.

Preschools are optional and had not existed in Yarova up until the 1970s when establishments were opened across the country, particularly in urban areas. However, since then more have been set up and they have proven largely successful with a significant percentage of infants attending preschools. Preschool attendance may soon become more widespread, as the federal government are considering making it compulsory. Young Yarovars tend to start primary school at the age of four years, though it is currently acceptable to hold infants back an additional year.

The Ministry for Education under the direction of the Minister for Education, is in overall control of policy, funding, and direction. The current Minister for Education is Mstislav Dostoyevsky. Each federated district is enabled by law to modify the curricula taught in their educational establishments but core aspects must be maintained and certain criteria must be met. For instance, physical education, mathematics, science, Yarovan, and Ovancian are subjects which are required throughout the course of the first two education levels. Sex education is instilled in Yarovan students from the age of six years onwards.

A large classroom at a Yarovan secondary school in Zatish'ye, 2012.

Theology and ethics is optional and is not an exam subject. Courses are now available at the secondary level with the objective of stopping bullying/discrimination, encouraging internet safety and assisting students in looking after their mental health. Equality in the classroom, mutual respect in the working relationship between teacher and student, is being particularly emphasised. Corporal punishment was officially outlawed in Yarova in 1979, since then it has become a criminal offence and some schools have set up ‘time out’ rooms as a nonviolent alternative.

In 2013 Seychas magazine estimated that up to 32.30 percent of secondary school students in Yarova go on to pursue tertiary education, one of the highest rates in the world. There are, at present, 902 tertiary educational institutions spread across the country. Several Yarovan universities sit at the world’s top 1 percent, with an increasingly more disciplined learning environment. The following rank in the top ten of tertiary educational institutions in the United Federated Districts:

  1. National University of Yarova (Яровский национальный университет), abbreviated to YNU.
  2. Cheskovsk School of Fashion (Ческовская школа моды), abbreviated to CSM.
  3. University of Chaykoboksarsk (Чаыкобоксарск университет), abbreviated to CU.
  4. University of Shchyokhov (Щёлково университет), abbreviated to SU.
  5. National Academy of Acting and Music, Chaykoboksarsk (Национальная академия актерского мастерства и музыки , Чаыкобоксарск), abbreviated to NAAMMC.
  6. Shchyokhov Business School (Щёлково Школа бизнеса), abbreviated to SSB.
  7. University of Abramivka (Абрамовский университет), abbreviated to AU.
  8. Gima Dadei University (Гима Дадей университет), abbreviated to GDU.
  9. Technological Institute of Chaykoboksarsk (Чаыкобоксарск технологический институт), abbreviated to CTI.
  10. Khanskoye-Chirbent Institute of Keshian and Avalonian Studies (Кханскоые-Чирбент Институт кэшанскикх и авалонскикх исследований), abbreviated to KCIKAS.

Health

The healthcare system of Yarova is private with a public insurance option, directed by the Ministry for Healthcare and Child Protection and regulated by the Federal Health Executive (Федеральная служба здравоохранения). The current Minister for Healthcare and Child Protection is Gorban Laptev who is responsible for setting overall health service policy and allocating federal government funding. Every citizen of Yarova is entitled by law to the right of healthcare, supported by general public taxation. Healthcare government expenditure was worth 23.11 percent of the GDP in 2018. The public healthcare system also provides free (at the point of service) ambulance services for emergencies, when patients need the specialist transport only available from ambulance crews or when patients are not fit to travel home by public transport. These scenarios are usually supplemented by regional voluntary ambulance services. Controversially, marijuana is legally available for medicinal use to alleviate patient suffering. To obtain a medical-use warrant, a citizen over the age of sixteen years must provide formal and conclusive evidence that they suffer from physical complaints. This legislation was welcomed by numerous health organisations and charities, such as MS Yarova. There are 3.98 physicians per 1,000 citizens, which demonstrates a very robust medical community.

Clinical hospital in Almeransk, Afonas'yevskiy Oblast.
Marijuana may be grown in Yarova for medical purposes.

Voluntary euthanasia, the practice of intentionally and consensually ending a life (or PAS, ending one’s own life) in order to relieve pain and suffering, has also been legalised in Yarova. Though a deeply controversial issue among certain sects of society, the procedure is subject to specific, stringent criteria. To carry euthanasia out legally, the law requires the patient to be in irreversible pain and suffering. A 2018 report by the School of Public Health at the National University of Yarova found that 86 percent of euthanised Yarovan patients’ lives were shortened from a few hours to one week at most. Other conditions include: explicit consent from the patient, absence of a reasonable alternative, physician-assistance in a medically-appropriate fashion, the patient condition must be deemed chronic, with an irreversible deterioration of day-to-day capabilities and quality of life. The House of Representatives passed legislation in 2016, which emphasised the practice of euthanasia only in very specific circumstances and requires patients to be over the age of twelve years (with parental consent from the age of twelve to sixteen years). The parliament also passed the Zhigunovsk Protocol, which covers the extremely rare case of euthanising terminally-ill and suffering children under the age of twelve years.

As parts of Yarova continue to urbanise, an increasing number of young men and women from rural regions are moving to cities hundreds of kilometres away, leaving their ageing parents without family support. The federal government has addressed this growing issue in a ten-year strategy by developing state subsidized elderly care centres, which are aimed to be accessible to all Yarovan citizens over the age of 65 years by 2026. In 2018, the United Federated Districts celebrated its first ‘Respect the Elderly Day’ which is now observed annually across all districts and territories. The day is government-sponsored and involves eldercare awareness programmes in schools, community halls, workplaces and universities. Yarova has a high level of institutionalisation – sending people to care homes – but it takes measures to keep them in their homes for as long as possible, through home improvements such as handrails and mobility systems, and daycare provision. The average life expectancy in Yarova in 2013 is 84 years, with 81.1 years for men and 86.6 years for women. In August 2015, proposals were made by a string of district-level governments to transfer all healthcare to a devolved matter, but this has since been rejected by the federal government in fear of inequality. However districts often add services onto the national public option and often run regional hospital systems. Yarova has many major health systems across the history.

Culture

Art, film and theatre

Yarova's past as an Artemian power and its cultural environment generated a broad contribution to various forms of art, most notably among them painting. Yarova was the birthplace of many internationally celebrated artists such as Vitaliy-Tikhon Yurievich, Yeremey Ardankin, Klavdiy Balabanov, Andrei Smirnitsky and Grigoriy Ryazma. The aforementioned artists were enabled to forge the pieces of their ingenious artistic legacy owing to their aristocratic patrons. Many royal portraits from the late-16th to mid-19th century were painted by these artists. The National Art Museum of Yarova in Chaykoboksarsk is home to much of these artist's works as well as those from abroad. Arguably, Yarova’s most famous work of art is Poyavleniye Zhizni (Появление Жизни), a mural by Yurievich located in Chaykoboksarsk Cathedral. Yarovars remain very proud of their artistic heritage and in recent times contemporary forms of art are being embraced. Such postmodern art is not without controversy, however, particularly among older generations who perceive it to be somewhat cheap. In the past number of years, postmodern art has flourished, whereas older forms of art which promote monarchism and, to a lesser extent, Christianity, are no longer popular. Anti-establishment forms, especially urban art and its infamous graffiti, have been addressed by the government with a surprisingly positive attitude. Projects have been initiated where artists are authorised to spray paint their designs on newly-built apartment complexes in numerous Yarovan cities. Urban art workshops also take place in addition to this.

Kusya Krolik, the most celebrated cartoon character from Kaldicott Studios and their show Druz'ya Zhivotnykh (‘Animal Friends’).

Yarova has, since the early 20th century, been a centre of motion picture production. Notable films topping the Yarovan Film Community's Top 100 list include Teplyy Bereg (Теплый берег) (1945), Pomest'ye v Vinarii (Поместье в Винарии) (1953), Gnezdo Kobyly (Гнездо кобылы) (1956), Vnutri Nas (Внутри нас) (1958), Reformatsiya (Реформация) (1961), Negodyai Millionera (Негодяи Миллионера) (1964), Rotornaya Drobilka (Роторная дробилка) (1968), Upoyeniye (упоение) (1973), Dmitriy (Дмитрий) (1975) and probably the most popular of all, Gipnoz (Гипноз) (1946). Perhaps the most well-known Yarovan thespian is Selena Ishivira, who commenced her career in Borisopol theatres and later played prominent roles in up to 165 film productions.

Selena Ishivira with Yeremey Sysoyev in Rotornaya Drobilka (Роторная дробилка) (1968).

Kaldicott Studios was a Yarovan animation studio based in downtown Chaykoboksarsk that existed from 1923 until 1946 when it went bankrupt. Kaldicott Studios, which was founded by Goetic immigrant Arnold Kaldicott Sr., was behind the creation of the famous cartoon rabbits Kusya and Kalina Krolik. The rabbits, which starred on a show called Druz'ya Zhivotnykh (Друзья животных), have since become the symbols of Yarovan animation achievements. The cartoon show was first produced without sound, but the expensive and experimental endeavour of sound synchronisation was accomplished in 1929. Following the company's bankruptcy, which came about due to fierce competition abroad, attempts were made by Arnold's son-in-law to regenerate it. However, all was in vain and a private multinational company bought the rights to Druz'ya Zhivotnykh in 1947.

The Vorola district in Chaykoboksarsk's borough of Kasvipat, home to numerous globally renowned theatres, is often considered to represent one of the highest levels of commercial theatre in Artemia. Seeing a Vorola show is a common tourist activity in Chayboksarsk, largely owing to the fact shows are presented in numerous languages other than Yarovan. The most celebrated theatre in this district is the Teatr Mussonov (Театр муссонов), which commonly features on Yarovan postcards and hosts shows by the most distinguished producers and playwrights in the federated districts. The Teatr Mussonov first opened in 1798, after four years of planning and construction work, and was a favourite among Yarovan aristocrats and the royal family. The theatre was designed in the Empire style, as was the Teatr Svyatoy Marii (Tеатр Святой Марии) further down the same street at Soyuz-Avenyu (Союз-авеню).

Architecture

Yarovan architecture follows a tradition whose roots lie in early Yarovan wooden architecture and in the architecture of Ljudia with its centres in Svogda, Pervouborg and Abramivka. Indeed, Yarovan architecture was also influenced by the Samot-Seratofian Empire. A large part of Yarovan architecture developed independently and was characterised by national and local features. The great churches of Ljudia, built after the adoption of Christianity in 988 CE, were the first examples of monumental architecture in the East Slavic region. Early Eastern Orthodox churches were mainly built from wood, with their simplest form known as a “cell church”. Cathedrals often featured many small “onion-shaped” domes, which has led some art historians to infer how the pagan Slavic temples may have appeared.

The Andreyushkin Building, an Eastern Classicist skyscraper, on the banks of the River Alegiyev in Chaykoboksarsk.
The Bykovsky Tower pictured at night, an 87-floor Postmodernist complex.

The Ascension Cathedral in Svogda (1155 CE), on the other hand, expressed a new style which exerted a strong influence on Yarovan church architecture. Its thick exterior walls carved with elaborate carvings, and small, narrow windows have much in common with the Romanesque architecture found in much of Western Artemia. From the reign of Tsar Yaroslav VI to Tsar Ivan V, there was a period of substantial urban expansion and economic growth. This can be observed with the foundation of the city of Minerinsk-Belgorod and its imposing and impressively-designed buildings. The buildings constructed during this era have come to symbolise and define Yarova as a country. Some places of worship, others royal palaces. Among the most well-known examples of Yarovan architecture from that time include Shchyokhov’s Imperial Palace, the 22-domed Patriarchal Cathedral of Mary, the Blessed Virgin in Svogda, the Cheskovsk Kremlin, Minerinsk-Belgorod’s Yahontov Kremlin, and the fortified Resplendent Gardens, also in Minerinsk-Belgorod.

In modern times, Yarova is renowned for the architectural significance of its major cities, particularly Chaykoboksarsk, Minerinsk-Belgorod, Cheskovsk, Yumarapol, and Shchyokhov. Chaykoboksarsk, being the largest city in the United Federated Districts, boasts buildings of a wide range of styles, spanning distinct historical and cultural periods. These include the Andreyushkin Building, an Eastern Classicist skyscraper with terracotta panels and ornate pseudo-Gothic crowns over its raised corners, the Bykovsky Tower, a Postmodernist complex, and the Chaykoboksarsk Finance Centre, the country’s second-tallest building, which was constructed in 1989. The city is also home to the Bastion Tower, the third-tallest building in the world, which is 600 metres (1,968.5 ft) in height. Shchyokhov, as the federal capital, is the location of numerous buildings of political, financial and judicial importance. The Surkov Palace, the fourth-largest building in the world, is the seat of Yarova’s national parliament, Supreme Court and the primary residence of the president. Construction took a total of 13 years, having commenced in 1981 and finally completed in 1994. The palace is of the modernist Neoclassical style.

Cuisine

Yarovan cuisine bears witness to many international influences but also features many dishes specific to Yarova. The cuisine of Yarova was traditionally based on meat and dairy, supplemented with vegetables and freshwater fish from surrounding lakes and rivers. Archaeological findings on the banks of the River Lazurnyy (Лазурный) strongly suggest that the river has been fished by man since 7,250 BCE. During the colonial period, Yarovan cuisine evolved considerably and was greatly influenced by the eating habits of countries in the Near South. Spices acquired in North Kesh on the old Yarovan trade route (via Qurac), such as cardamom, cinnamon, nutmeg and sesame seeds, were merged into Yarovan cuisine. Curries and North Keshian stews, such as tagines, were gradually embraced by populations across the Vojiskiy Empire. Yarovan cuisine derives its varied character from the vast and multi-ethnic expanse of the country. From a beet and cabbage soup known as borsch originating from Peremorovka to a dish consisting of grilled and skewered cubes of meat known as shashlik popular in the Dzyunakaz, the cuisine of Yarova is highly diverse.

Shashlik, a Yarovan type of shish kebab popular among the southern minorities.

Breakfast is considered the most important meal of the day by most Yarovars, citing scientific studies and recommendations by medical agencies. A traditional Yarovan breakfast is often composed of grains or cereals, sweetened breads, pancakes, muffins or toast with butter, jam or marmalade. Pastries are also popular breakfast choices in Yarova. Yarovan pâtisseries, known as Konditerskaya (Кондитерская), experience the highest number of customers early in the morning. Beverages usually served with breakfast include a cold drink, such as fresh orange juice, or a hot drink, such as coffee. Breakfasts, while important, are usually light and ‘fry-ups’ can be frowned upon. Lunches are typically sandwiches, salads, light pasta dishes, or small fish sides.

A bowl of borsch garnished with dill and a dollop of smetana.

The modern cuisine of Yarova is undoubtedly heavily influenced by that of Western Artemian cuisine and is distinct from other Slavic nations. Examples of popular Yarovan food include pasta with salmon and asparagus, a beef soup known as Prozrachnyy pel'meni (Прозрачный Пельмени), Slivovyye knedliki (Сливовые кнедлики) and a wide variety of pastries. The most popular meats in the ethnic Yarovar regions are beef, goose and pork, with chicken and horse beef being commonly eaten in Peremorovka and Kryzhelovschina. Yarova has an old gaming tradition, considering the many vast woodlands that cover the countryside. In autumn and winter it is common for game meats such as wild boar, venison and Artemian hare to be on the menu in Yarovan restaurants. Dinners are traditionally served after 6 pm, and children as young as fourteen can legally enjoy a small glass of wine measuring one unit of alcohol. Only certain wine varieties and brands are approved by the Yarovan government for consumption by fourteen and fifteen-year-olds.

Desserts are very much an important aspect of Yarovan cuisine and most Yarovars enjoy a small dessert after their daily dinner. Such desserts include strudels (especially those filled with apple or sour cherry), pastries and cheese cakes. Kogalma meringue, which features double cream traditionally produced in the region surrounding Kogalma, is arguably Yarova’s most famous dessert dish. The meringue is often served alongside a glass of coffee, typically a Yarovan mokko. Coffee alongside meals is also perceived as customary by most Yarovars, with some estimates putting coffee consumption per capita at 8.7 kilograms per annum – one of the highest rates in the world. Cafés can be found on nearly every street in every town across the federated districts; café culture has become a central part of Yarovan society.

Literature

Yarovars have made a significant contribution to world literature in their numerous vernacular languages. Naturally, as a result, many highly esteemed Yarovan writers have emerged over the years, having their respective influences and legacies. In the middle ages, the Yarovan language went through the process of standardisation, which occurred thanks to writers placing their thoughts on paper. Ecclesiastical works were produced heavily during this period, enriching the culture surrounding the Svogda Patriarchate. Much of the literature at the time focused on religion and the teachings of Yarovan orthodoxy but the works of Grigoriy Shikalov were indeed unique. Shikalov’s collection of fictitious sequential stories of romance, unrequited love and subsequent tragedy paved the way for a different form of literature in the country. Shikalov’s most regarded novel Zhala Korolevy Pchel (known as ‘The Queen Bee’s Sting’ in Anglic) remains as relevant today as it was over 375 years ago when it was originally published. However, despite the relevance, Shikalov never received due credit in his lifetime and was shunned by the Svogda Patriarchate for his tales of infidelity, promiscuity and normalisation of sex work. Though his literature was not officially banned, which some believe (without substance) was due to the fact Tsar Yaroslav IV was a closeted fanatic, Shikalov failed to make a living in this field. It was not until after his death in 1688 that the people of Yarova slowly began to embrace his thirteen completed novels. A museum dedicated to Yarovan literature was formally opened in his native Voroscow, Golitsyna in 1988, the three-hundredth-year anniversary of his demise.

A depiction of the sea serpent and the Vhekvitili-Vyshika fishermen from Petre Otar Saakashvili's 18th-century novel Zghvashi (‘In the Deep').
Yarovan poet Andrei Selivanov.

In eastern Yarova, literature in minority languages such as Kartvelian and Hayastani have developed parallel to their Yarovan-language counterpart in the north, midlands and elsewhere. Maritime themes are distinguishing features of eastern literature. Such examples include Saakashvili's Zghvashi (‘In the Deep’), which is a striking story in Kartvelian of Vhekvitili-Vyshika fishermen and their struggle against an unrelenting sea serpent, as well as Dadaş Gharabaghi’s Irkutskali dəniz Piratesinin Salnamələri (‘Chronicles of the Irkutsk Sea Pirates’). Partogh Taslakian’s crime and murder novels have also deservedly found their place into the canon of great Artemian literature. Latangan literature is largely associated with folk culture and the island chain has birthed countless talented writers, among them Siali Lofipo.

Yarova has also produced several celebrated poets, to name but a few Andrei Selivanov, Artem Palij, Stepan Maksimushkin, and Nina Yushchenko. Andrei Selivanov, like Stepan Maksimushkin, was an aristocrat and wrote most of his poetry while contemplating life’s complexities on luxurious estates. Selivanov possessed a keen interest in botany which was reflected in his work, but he was also fascinated by class divides and wrote about such associations. Artem Palij is widely considered to be the pillar of the Yarovan literary establishment and played a leading role in the so-called “Yarovan literary golden age” in the late-19th century. Palij dealt primarily with Yarovan national identity in his works; his most notable being Kto My? (‘Who Are We?’) Nina Yushchenko, a Peremorovkar who has been active since the 1970s, has pushed Peremorovkan-language poetry forward into the modern-day and is well-known for her comical verses on everyday situations. Her tongue-in-cheek observational poem Vytivky v Supermarketi (‘Antics in a Supermarket’), which was written in 1973, won many awards and is widely considered to be the poem which kick-started her career. The poem features on a currently-airing YTV network advertisement promoting a wholesale food supplying company.

The most popular contemporary Yarovar writer remains Viktor Pelechev. Pelechev fushes low culture, esoteric philosphy, conspiracy theories, and mysticism about lost civilizations. His most popular novel remains "General Novi" - a story about an Osorrai veteran turned into a telemarketer in post 90s Yarova. So called "post capitalist realism" has made a big splash in Yarova especially with the influence of Lyosha Kiselev. Many famous post-capitalist realist authors have emerged about the cultural and economic scene in Yarova with deindustrialization. Finally in modern times romance novels have become very big in Yarova and some of the top-selling hits in the country.

Fashion and retail

In the past, Yarovan fashion maintained pronounced and distinctive trends, with the accommodating of particular marketability for fur. Following the 1997 ban on the thriving fur trade, the country has shifted heavily to the trends of Western Artemia. Notwithstanding this, historic Yarovan luxury fashion houses, such as Zolotov and Chelmansha, have survived the trials of legislative tightening. While faux fur sales are currently on a steady, upward trajectory, it appears this is due to economics and not ethics. Controversially, Zolotov continues to legally import genuine fur from neighbouring Aukalnia, where the fur trade persists. This was infamously demonstrated with the company’s promotion of a blond mink pea coat at Cheskovsk Fashion Week in 2017, two decades after the national abolition.

Yarovan model Angelina Shcherba wears a see-through top worn along with pasties, a trend made popular by social media.
Sheepskin telpeks are widely worn in south-eastern Yarova, especially in Yelerinsk Oblast.

This popular fashion event, which receives the most press coverage in Eastern Artemia, takes place twice a year in March and October in the nation’s third-largest city of Cheskovsk, now widely regarded as the Yarovan ‘City of Fashion’. Yarovan luxury goods are renowned for the quality of the textiles and the elegance and refinement of their construction. Many Vallissian, Legantian, and Brigantican high-top luxury brands also rely on Yarovan craft factories, located in highly specialised areas in and around the metropolitan area of Cheskovsk and the centre-north of Yarova Proper to produce parts of their apparel and accessories. In recent years Yarovar fast fashion has moved to cheaper Osorrai factories where labor is much cheaper, regulations less, and no langauge barriers exist. Still Osorrai elites remain top customers of specialised Yarovar made fashion.

Fashion has always been an important aspect of Yarova’s cultural life and Yarovars are well known for their attention to dressing-up well; khorosheye vpechatleniye (хорошее впечатление), or “good impression”, remains a tradition. Tsarina Ana of the Vojiskiy dynasty, who reigned from the mid-to-late seventeenth century, was renowned for her elaborate dresses and, during that period, was widely regarded as the most fashionable queen in all-Artemia. From the 1920s onwards, Chaykoboksarsk was Yarova’s fashion capital, with its holding of an annual high-fashion festival which earned the attendance of reputable names such as Matvei Voskoboynikov, Artemi Zolotov, Milorad Shchegelsky, Madgalina Vyacheslavovna, Elie Chelmansha Shurgina, and Yosyf Qutuy. Whilst Cheskovsk led the way by the beginning of the 1960s, with the then-new fashion houses of Safin, Ivanovich, Amerhan, Brezhnev, and Kazi & Yaldin setting up luxury boutiques and emporia in the heart of the city. Since then, the city’s Fashion Week has solidified its status. In the 1980s and 1990s, ushankas, sheepskin telpeks, and Khankalgorod hats made a comeback, with many Yarovars rediscovering national pride during the nuclear weapons era and its aftermath.

Following recommendations made by a cross-political party committee to regulate the clothing supply chain in 2013, the federal government adopted a series of measures to increase pressure on Yarovan brands and retailers to take more responsibility for poor working conditions and the global epidemic of throwaway clothes. A preliminary report found that Yarovan consumers purchase more new clothes annually than any other country in Eastern Artemia, and send approximately 350,000 tonnes of clothes a year to incineration or landfills. These government measures include charging fast fashion producers five cents for each garment, a ban on incinerating unsold stock, mandatory environmental targets for fashion retailers with a turnover of more than $45 million, and use of the Yarovan tax system to shift the balance of incentives in favour of reuse, repair and recycling to support responsible fashion companies. However due to limited cooperation by the Osorrai government where most of these clothes are manufactured, enforcement has been limited.

Media

Antikvariat Ekskursiya (‘Antique Excursion’) is a popular daytime TV show with long-time presenter and auctioneer Yegor Dubinkin.

The Yarovan Broadcasting Commission (Яровская вещательная комиссия) oversees advertisement on television and radio in the United Federated Districts. The advertisement of cigarettes is strictly prohibited, while alcohol and contraception may only be advertised after 9 pm. YTV (Яровское телевидение) which was initially launched in August 1935 as a news network, but later expanded three years later, is Yarova’s largest and oldest broadcaster. YTV has now been placed into state control and has dramatically altered the face of the network. Chaykoboksarsk dominates the media sector in Yarova; national newspapers, television and radio are all largely based there, although Shchyokhov, Kapachi and Cheskovsk are also significant national media centres. TV Pyat’ (телевидение Пять), another major television corporation based in Yarova, has its headquarters in Chaykoboksarsk. Both YTV and TV Pyat’ maintain regional broadcasting channels across the United Federated Districts with local news and several different languages. TV Peremorovka (Телебачення Переморівка) provides television entertainment and news to speakers of the Peremorovkan language which is largely spoken in the north-western oblasts and border regions. Plans are currently underway by TV Peremorovka to develop a Kryzhelovski platform by 2021.

Broadcasting antenna in Chaykoboksarsk.

In 2017, a survey was undertaken which revealed that, on average, Yarovars view 4 hours of television and 2⅓ hours of radio per day. The said survey also estimated that YTV, the main broadcaster, accounted for 29.9 percent of all television viewing in Yarova, with TV Pyat’ at 23.4 percent. Nonetheless TV Pyat’s strong daytime line-up helped by programmes such as Dobroye Utro, Yarova (Доброе утро, Ярова), Moya Tochka Zreniya (Моя точка зрени), Antikvariat Ekskursiya (Антиквариат Экскурсия), Dom Pod Solntsem (Дом под солнцем) and game shows such as Slabaya Nit’ (Слабая нить) are very popular, achieving the highest audience share during the daytime slot.

YTV possesses ownership of most nationwide radio stations, numbering 48 stations in total. The stations intend to meet the wants of all age groups and ethnicities, from 24/7 news to rap music. YTV Radio (Радио YTV) accommodates for regional listeners and is distinctive for its presentation of birthday wishes and death notices. Hundreds of independent stations exist across the country, particularly in rural regions. Seychas (Сейчас), which is part of the TV Pyat’ company, is a popular tabloid magazine in Yarova headquartered in Chaykoboksarsk. Paparazzi are explicitly banned in the United Federated Districts owing to anti-stalking laws which forbid Yarovan citizens and foreign subjects from encroaching on the personal privacy of another. Consensual photo shoots of celebrities, politicians and public figures are all that are authorised in Yarovan media. Gossip tabloids are regarded with equal disdain by Yarovars but are not illegal. In comparison to other Artemian societies which embrace gossip magazines, sales are largely mediocre in Yarova. A 2010 nationwide poll, which was conducted in response to a phone-hacking scandal by Privet! (Привет!), revealed that up to 78.6 percent of Yarovars view them unfavourably.

Music and dance

Traditional methods of song and dance are still very much popular in Yarova to this day, the troika being among them. Narodnyye Sobraniya (Народные собрания), the events where these dances are held, are commonplace throughout the country among most ethnic groups. Yarova also takes pride in its celebration of western dances of a more sensual nature, particularly cancan (канкан) and burlesk (Бурлеск). The aforementioned dances were popularised in the mid-19th century and are arguably embraced more in Yarovan society than that of their homeland. Such styles of dance, which have pushed bawdy comedy and striptease into the mainstream, are most often performed in purpose-built cabaret clubhouses. With internationally acclaimed cabarets such as the Rozovyy Pavil'on (Розовый павильон) and Elektrodom (Электродом), tens of thousands of tourists flock every year to view these shows.

Part of the crowd at the first concert of the Vysokaya Zhizn' Festival in 1966.
Fan dance by a Yarovan burlesk dancer, 2016.

Yarova also embraces modern styles of music and most Yarovars prefer to see music being enjoyed as an art and not misused as a business off which to make a profit. The Vysokaya Zhizn' Festival (Высокая жизнь) was founded in 1966 and has provided the youth of Yarova with annual summer events held at numerous venues across the federated districts free of charge. The events require an online ticket and there are now strict quotas for health and safety reasons. Many celebrated artists have performed at Vysokaya Zhizn' concerts, most notably Yarovan rock band Priglasheniye (Приглашение), Lisitsa Burkova, Osip Maslov, Pustynnyye Stranniki (Пустынные странники), Amadi Umewezi and Kartochnyye Soldaty (Карточные солдаты). The main festival commences on the last week of June and lasts until the third week of July, it has been held at the Vechnyy Stadion (Вечный стадион) in Cheskovsk every year since 1993. Other Vysokaya Zhizn' concerts take place in Minerinsk-Belgorod and Khanskoye-Chirbent. Yarova takes credit for being the founding country of the Global Song Contest, having been the first nation to host the competition in 1966. Yarovan music artists are nominated and awarded each year at the NMPYs (Национальная музыкальная премия Яровый).

Yarova has a very large electronic and EDM scene, with electronic music being among the most popular in the country. The country is the center of house music in Anterra with numerous popular artists.

Hip hop and its surrounding subculture was formed among the black immigrant population of northern Chaykoboksarsk (the northside boroughs) in the 1970s. It became increasingly popular during the time block parties emerged in urban areas throughout the country. Initially, hip hop often focused on the hardships and impoverished conditions black Yarovars and other minorities had to face at the time, as well as the pressure of assimilating into “native culture”. However, since then the genre has diversified and become more complex, with artists from all over the world with a vast array of backgrounds embracing it. Yarova has produced a countless number of well-known artists such as Dayo, ½Gal'ka, H.J., O.K.O. and Amadi Umewezi, who is considered by many to be the “father of hip hop”. Onyeka, a woman of West Keshian heritage from Cheskovsk, is by far Yarova’s biggest rap talent of this decade with an estimated net worth of 95 million international dollars. Onyeka has also brought white rap artist ₲yalina to international attention The Irkutsk Energiya (Иркутск Энергия) summer festival in the coastal port city of Khanskoye-Chirbent hosts some of the federated district’s most current and popular artists of the aforementioned genres.

There are numerous internationally renowned record companies in Yarova. The record companies are regulated by the Yarova Music Group (Музыкальная группа Яровый). Belaya Gora Records (Белая гора) is the country’s largest label which markets music recordings and videos. In the label’s roster include a large number of popular music artists. Belaya Gora has expanded its label with several daughter companies being established catering to different regions and genres.

Sports

Sport is an important aspect of Yarovan culture and society, playing a significant role in many Yarovar’s everyday lives. In 2015 about 32.1 million people were members of more than 94,000 sports clubs in Yarova. Yarova’s populace possesses a substantial interest in a broad variety of sport, with certain sports activities especially popular in different regions. Almost all sports in the country are overseen by the Yarova Olympic Federation (Олимпийская федерация Яроваи) (OFY), which is in turn monitored by the Yarovan government. The government have emphasised the necessity for inclusiveness and equality in sport, and sponsored initiatives have been set up to nurture the growth of sports clubs for women, the disabled, and the LGBT community.

Soccer, which is generally referred to as “football” by Yarovars, is arguably the most popular sport in Yarova and has been for many years. The Yarova Football Federation (Футбольная федерация Яроваи) (FFY) is the governing body of association football in Yarova. It was formed in 1930 and is based in Yumarapol. The FFY’s database states there are currently over 52,300 football clubs dotted across the country as of 2017. Seven of those soccer clubs hold, or have held, their place on the international league table, namely FC Chaykoboksarsk City, FC Belgorod, FC Cheskovsk, FC Minerinsk, Inter-Yumarapol, FC Kogalma and FC Borisopol, known colloquially as the Prisraki. There is also a national football team that partakes in international championships, having won the World Cup in 1970 and 1975 and coming second place in 1980. The 1970s are often regarded as the “golden age of Yarovan football,” since then Yarova has had only modest success in comparison to neighbouring states.

Freeskiers at Kygadan, Smirnova Oblast.

Yarova is also represented by a national rugby team, which competes in global competitions and has proven to be rather successful. Albeit rugby is not overly played in the eastern federated districts and is often referred to as a “Peremorovkar's sport” by the media, given many of the team’s players hail from the north-west.

Yarova is perhaps best known in the world of sport for tennis and its historic Yarovan Open which was founded in 1889 and has taken place every mid-July since, over a period of a fortnight. The Open is held in Shchyokhov’s Respublikanskiy Stadion (Республиканский стадион) on a grass surface and typically has high attendance, from both domestic citizens and tourists from overseas. The Yarovan Open is owned and organised by the Yarova Tennis Association (Теннисная ассоциация Яроваи) (TAY), a non-profit organisation. The tournament is, therefore, notable for its absence of sponsor advertising surrounding the courts. It is customary for the Yarovan president to attend all of the finals. Vikentiy Obukhov and Evelina Shulichenka are two of Yarova’s most celebrated tennis players, having won many world titles between them.

Winter sports, particularly ice hockey and skiing are characteristic to the mountainous regions of the Karbykans. The annual event Nedelya v Kygadan (Неделя в Кигадане) attracts tens of thousands of people to the small winter resort town for seven days of winter sports activities in November.

Other minor sports activities, such as boxing, basketball and motorsports are observed across the federated districts and territories but to a smaller degree. Basketball is largely reserved for the black immigrant populations of Chaykoboksarsk, Shchyokhov, and Minerinsk-Belgorod. Cross-country automobile rallies, which are very popular in rural northern Yarova, are held throughout the year in different seasonal circuits. Many regional competitions take place and are enjoyed by local communities.

Gender and sexuality

In the 1960s, a shift in the way Yarovan people thought about sexuality began to take place, with the formation of the sex-positivity movement and the heralding of a new culture of “free love”. Millions of young people adopted the hippie ethos and challenged traditional perceptions towards sex as hypocritical and chauvinistic. Among Yarovars, the period from 1965-1975 is referred to as the Seks Revolyutsiya (Секс революция) or the “Sex Revolution”, when sexual liberalisation popularised experimenting with open sex in and outside of marriage, contraception and the pill, public nudity, Queer liberation, legalised abortion, interracial marriage, a return to natural childbirth, women's rights and feminism.

Outskirts of Chubna, the primary red-light district in Chaykoboksarsk.

Yarova is widely regarded as being among the world's most sex-positive countries. In a 2019 survey by internationally-renowned condom brand Intimex, Yarova ranked first as the most sexually active country on the globe. It is estimated that more than 80 percent of adult Yarovars have sex at least once a week and just over a third of over-65s still have sex regularly. Owing to the comprehensive nature of sex education in the public system and the emphasis placed on safe sex, more than 90 percent of Yarovars report their first sexual encounter as being positive and satisfying.

The sex work industry is legal and regulated across the 29 districts, and receives federal government funding. Chubna, Chaykoboksarsk’s red-light district, has emerged as a popular sex tourist destination, with the Zemlya Udovol'stviy (Земля удовольствий) bordello, also known as the “Pleasure Ground”, being a particular favourite. Every year, the city also hosts the Yarovan SEXpo, a health, sexuality and lifestyle exhibition which highlights the work of popular performers from all aspects of the adult entertainment industry, including pornography. The week-long event also features showcases of the latest and greatest sex toys the world has to offer, as well as erotic literature. Famous Yarovan pornographic film actors include Nastja, Roman Yanovich, Xenia Rosova and Luchok Zvezda.

National holidays

Date Name Native Name Remarks
1 January New Year’s Day Новый год First day of the year on the modern Gregorian and Julian calendars.
7 January (Eastern Orthodox) Christmas Рождество Religious holiday which may be observed instead of Eid al-Fitr.
13 January Freedom Day День свободы Yarova’s national day to mark the collapse of the Vojiskiy Empire and the foundation of the United Federated Districts.
8 March International Women’s Day Международный женский день Day of celebrating the social, economic, cultural and political achievements of women.
Moveable Easter Monday Пасхальный понедельник Religious holiday which may be observed instead of Eid al-Adha.
Moveable Eid al-Fitr Ид аль-Фитр Religious holiday which may be observed instead of Christmas. Compulsory in Pozdnyakovskaya Oblast.
31 May Yarovan People’s Unity Day День народного единства Яровии Day of celebrating the Yarovan people and the nation alongside inter-ethnic relations between ethnic Yarovars and the many minority groups.
Last Monday of June LGBTQ+ Pride ЛГБТК+ Прайд Day of celebrating the LGBTQ+ community of the United Federated Districts. Not observed in the oblasts of Bochinovka, Buguznogorsk, Kropokhovo, Pozdnyakovskaya, and Yelerinsk since 2019.
Moveable Eid Al-Adha День народного единства Яровии Religious holiday which may be observed instead of Easter Monday. Compulsory in Pozdnyakovskaya Oblast.
Last Monday of July Day of the Armed Forces День Вооруженных Сил Day of honouring the people who have served and continue to serve in the Armed Forces of Yarova.
Last Monday of August Knowledge Day День Знаний Day of celebrating the right to education. Traditionally takes place the day before the start of a new school year.
Last Monday of October Halloween/Forefathers’ Eve Хэллоуин/Дед Day of remembering the dead. Observed as ‘Halloween’ in the oblasts and free cities of Afonas'yevskiy, Chaykoboksarsk, Cheskovsk, Golitsyna, Minerinsk-Belgorod, Shchyokhov, Sof'yanka, Yadryshkina, and Yumarapol. Conservative politicians have expressed opposition to the western folk day and advocated for the introduction of the more Slavic ‘Forefathers’ Eve’ in the 1980s.
Last Monday of November National Workers’ Day День Вооруженных Сил Day of honouring the Yarovan worker.