Motto: Gott mit uns
"God with us"
Anthem: Freie Stadt an der Rawa
|Status||Condominium of the East Ramayan Government-in-Exile and Provisional Government of the Goetic Empire|
|Recognised regional languages||Eastern Ramayan Standard|
Colony (1874-1925) |
|I Made Artha Wiguna|
• Treaty of Sragen
• Goetic collapse and condominium
• 1981 System
|466 km2 (180 sq mi)|
• 2015 census
|830/km2 (2,149.7/sq mi)|
• Per capita
|Currency||Singaradscha Mark (SDM)|
Singaradscha, officially the Condominium of Singaradscha (Goetic: Kondominium Singaradscha, ERS: Kondominium Singaraja), is microstate located in Southern Kesh. Covering an area of 275 km2 (106 sqmi), it is centred on the city of Singaradscha on the southeastern coast of what is now South Kesh.
The territory was originally leased by the Goetic Empire from the Samot-Seratofian Empire in 1874 for 99 years; during Goetic colonial rule, it served as a vital rest stop for Goetic transoceanic shipping and as a place to project naval power. The collapse of the Samot-Seratofian Empire and the exile of the Goetic Empire to Alva in 1925 put the territory in jeopardy; the Singaradscha Agreement, signed by the Goetic Provisional Government and the newly-established Republic of East Ramay saw the establishment of the modern condominium. Te Provisional Government fell into more disorganization and by the late 1940s, had become a puppet of the Alvak military dictatorship, and thus was severely limited in its ability to project power from its side of the continent. Like East Ramay, Singaradscha remained neutral during the Great Kesh War against the wishes of its Goetic administrators.
A round of negotiations took place between Singaradscha’s two administrators during this time. Despite assurances that East Ramay would bear Singaradscha’s debts if it integrated into the former, the negotiations fell through in 1963. Alva’s fast recovery following the Great Kesh War coincided with a resurgence in Goetic influence within Singaradscha’s government, further deteriorating ties with East Ramay. With the original lease ending in 1973, another round of negotiations lasting from 1970 to 1973 saw the extension of the Goetic lease for another fifty years in exchange for financial relief; the results saw East Ramay’s newly appointed Prime Minister Hari Subagya’s popularity sharply decline, foreshadowing the upcoming internal strife the country would have, and increased anti-Goetic sentiment in East Ramay.
This state of affairs would continue until 1980 and the Alvak Spring; a new democratic Alva sought to reestablish friendly ties with East Ramay via the return of Singaradscha. However, East Ramay was marred by widespread political violence following the death of President Raditya the year prior. East Ramay would fall into civil war not long after; the resulting conflict saw the flight of hundreds of thousands of East Ramayans to Singaradscha, and the expulsion of the East Ramayan provisional government to the city. With their leader unwilling to lose a well-established connection to the outside world, Democratic Ramay was forced to halt their forces outside of the city’s borders.
The political situtation in Singaradscha is contentious. By 1981, Singaradscha found itself in a peculiar position: both of its overlords were now governments in exile. While technically being dependent territories of both East Ramay and the Goetic empire, neither actually possessed any political power outside of the condominium's borders. The South Kesh government, although not a direct successor of the East Ramayan government, still lays claim to the condominium, and has disputed ownership of the territory. The condominium is still internationally recognized as being a dependent territory of both governments; however, after both powers became governmen in exiles, it has become the norm to treat Singaradscha as a de-facto independent city state. This is further enshrined in the 1981 System and code promulgated by then Governor-General Lafayette.
The Samot-Seratofian Empire had subjugated and conquered lands in southern Kesh after fighting several colonial wars against the native political entities and other nations, mostly also colonial empires. The area in what is now known today as Singaraja became part of the newly-formed Colony of Eastern Ramay in the mid 19th century, having no special treatment or administration in the area. At the same time, the imperial Goetic empire was also growing its colonial reach in Kesh, with notable possessions being Alva by the Eurybian, and Shimakawa by the coast of Akiteiwa. An increase in Goetic presence was also observed in the mid-19th century, mostly merchant and civilian ships roaming around the continent, many for solely economic incentives.
The growth of Goetic presence in the area, especially with a growing number of possessions and dealings in Kesh, particularly eastern Kesh, prompted several inquiries back in Goetia to establish a colony in the southern end of Kesh, mainly to become a stopping and resting point for ships heading elsewhere. However, most of the lands in southern Kesh at that point were either already taken by other colonial empires, or were home to strong militaries, resulting in invasions and a colonial government being established to be very expensive and pyrrhic in nature. An alternative, sponsored by the then chancellor David von Spahr, gained momentum amongst the Goetic parliament and population as a whole. In 1873, Chancellor von Spahr suggested that the Goetic empire purchase a coastal territory from the existing entities in southern Kesh for a fee, which was much easier and cheaper to perform in the long run. Von Spahr contacted several empires and nations, though in the end, only the Samot-Seratofian Empire responded to von Spahr's requests.
Von Spahr initially offered to buy a province administered by Samot-Seratofian forces, though such request was denied. After a series of talks and negotiations between the two, both parties agreed to lease a coastal city named Singaradja in the southeastern portion of the colony for 99 years, effectively giving the Goetic Empire another colony in the continent. The Goetics gained 118 square kilometres which contained the principal city of Singaradja, along with surrounding areas rich in agriculture to support the local colonial economy. In 1874, the treaty of Sragen was signed, ratifying the transfer of power from the SSE to the Goetic Empire. Singaradja would be known as Singaradscha, adhering to Goetic spelling and orthography. The Samot-Seratofians would never administer Singaradja after leasing it to Goetic forces as the SSE would collapse in 1925, a mere 51 years after the lease had been made.
Goetic administration (1874-1925)
The treaty of Sragen solidified and legitimized Goetic rule over the colony. The language of administration was officially changed from Samot and Seratofian to Goetic. The Samot-Seratofian gold Krone was also replaced by the Singaradsches Reichspapier pegged to the Goetic currency at a rate of 1 Goetic Mark to 2 Reichspapier. In 1874, the first governor-general of Singaradscha was installed. Governor-general Willem von Kaiserwald would serve as Singaradscha's first colonial governor, administering the territory between 1874 to 1892. During his 18-year tenure in office, Governor-general Kaiserwald strengthened strategic Goetic interests within the fledgeling colony, including revitalizing the ancient port to support 19th-century trade demands, as well as constructing several offices and buildings of colonial importance in the center of Singaradscha city which would serve as the offices for the various administrative bodies formed under his tenure. The local population, which were known as "Inlanders" by the Goetic, were given primary education in Goetic, but ultimately was made to serve the small but growing Goetic minority inhabiting Singaradscha.
The number of Goetics inhabiting Singaradscha increased from no more than 10 individuals at the start of Goetic administration to nearly 2,000 people by 1890. Many Goetics migrated to Singaradscha in hopes of a better life and economic situation upon hearing that the revitalized ports were capable of harboring ships and vessels commonly used in maritime trade around Kesh at that point. The Goetic branded themselves as the saviour of the Singaradschan population, seeing how brutal the SSE was towards other peoples in southern Kesh. As a result, during the early days of colonial administration, tensions between the colonial masters and the native population were kept low, although some dissent and discontent coming from both sides occurred. The inlanders continued to work mainly in agriculture, while the small Goetic minority controlled virtually all government positions and posts. In essence, while the same colonial practices that happened elsewhere in the Goetic empire occurred, the colonial administration was more pragmatic about the situation.
In 1897, Alfred Wagner was installed as governor-general of Singaradscha. His administration was proven to be very unpopular, both by the inlanders and the Goetic minority. His harsh policies towards the native inlanders to fulfill an ever-growing quota mandated by the Goetic empire included the forced planting of several cash crops such as tobacco, coffee, and sugar caused the soil quality to quickly degrade, and thus several food shortages happened in 1899-1900. The native inlanders were unhappy that their farmland turned unproductive and were subjugated far more harshly than the previous administration, while the Goetic minority complained about soaring prices and the bad reputation which would bring Goetia if such atrocities were continued. In a rare form of solidarity, the native inlanders and Goetic minority came together in 1901 and to petition the removal of Governor-General Wagner from his post directly towards the Goetic emperor.
The petition requests were successful, and in late 1901, Governor-General Wagner was sacked from his post and was replaced by Viktor Schumacher. Governor-General Schumacher was strictly commanded by the Goetic Empire to restore stability and favorability amongst both the inlanders and the Goetic minority while retaining Goetic supremacy. Governor-General Schumacher performed what is now known as his "ethical policies", constructing schools, hospitals, and most importantly irrigation systems in the damaged fields to restore social order and the favorability of the Goetic colonial administration. Consequently, the number of people which was able to read or write and speak the Goetic language increased massively, thus fostering a unique blend of Goetic-Galuhan identity within the populace. Inter-ethnic marriages was also permitted beginning in 1904, creating the "Singa" people, which was defined as 'anyone with partial Goetic and native ancestry'. Governor-General Schumacher's policies were very well received by the people in Singaradscha and in Goetia. Subsequent colonial governors would try and mimic what Governor-General Schumacher had completed.
In 1918, the Grand Campaigns broke out, mainly in Artemia. Goetia and the Samot-Seratofian Empire were involved in heavy warfare between 1918 and 1925, where focus was diverted from the colonies towards the mainland. Both empires would collapse after their loss in the Grand Campaigns, and their colonies were left in limbo. As per the treaty of Holmgard, the Republic of East Ramay was to be created encompassing all the lands the SSE administered, plus the addition of the leased territory of Singaradscha. The colonial administration, supported by the local population, rejected such a treaty. The general population, now more educated and being fed with Goetic propaganda, were concerned about their place in a fragile and economically crushed nation, and thus would like to remain a separate entity from East Ramay. Upon the arrival of the Goetic Provisional Government on Alvak shores, Governor-General Maximillian swore allegiance to that government and prompted to create international tension between the newly-formed and disorganized republic and the leased territories now with an unclear legal standing.
Shortly after the formation of East Ramay on the 1st of May 1925 and the rejection of Singaradscha to join the new republic, negotiations began to take place between the two sides. After four months of negotiations, it was agreed by both parties that Singaradscha would nominally become a condominium administered jointly by East Ramay and the Goetic Empire, now represented by the Provisional Government of the Goetic Empire. The heads of state of both entities would serve as the dual heads of state of the condominium.
Early condominium era and East Ramay Crisis (1925-1980)
On the 28th of August 1925, Singaradscha officially became the Condominium of Singaradscha, an internationally recognized political entity administered by both East Ramay and the Goetic Provisional Government. Goetic remained the official language of administration, while Eastern Ramayan Standard became a "recognized language". The Reichspapier was replaced by the Singaradscher Mark and the East Ramayan Austral at an official rate of 1 Austral = 81 Marks. Both currencies circulated alongside one another and must be accepted by law in all transactions, however, the East Ramayan Austral was more widely circulated, especially during the last years of the condominium's existence. The Parliament of Singaradscha was established shortly after the formation of the condominium, with elected representatives to promulgate laws and policies.
The powers of the Goetic Provisional Government continued to wane after the formation of the condominium. With the government in exile being a mere puppet of the Alvak military dictatorship, political commentators at the time referred to Singaradscha as "Alva's colony." East Ramay continued to gain influence in the outcome of several policies and ordeals signed into law in Singaradscha, which mostly favoured East Ramay. The Provisional Government at times threatened the East Ramayans, but was never seriously considered by East Ramay.
During the Kesh Wars, ideas and aspirations of reintegration with East Ramay began to circulate amongst the population. With the Provisional Government clearly being an Alvak puppet and being very incapable of running the territory effectively and with the economic boom in East Ramay happening due to the Kesh Wars, several notable politicians suggested that the status of Singaradscha be 'discussed as soon as possible'.
In 1960, one year after the conclusion of the Kesh Wars, Prime Minister I Made Artha Sugijanta formally requested the audience of East Ramay and the Goetic Provisional Government to discuss the future of the condominium. Prime Minister Sugijanta delivered the aspirations which circulated amongst the population in Singaradscha towards both parties, to the dismay of the Goetic Provisional Government. Despite assurances that Singaradscha's debts would be absorbed into East Ramay and that the local culture would be preserved to the best of their ability, negotiations broke down quickly.
Singaradscha was a valuable trade centre within the Southern Kesh sphere; GPG negotiators hoped that by retaining the city, maintaining economic ties in the region would remain significantly easier. Relinquishing the city to East Ramay was seen as political suicide; Singaradscha had functioned as an anchor for Goetic naval power projection during its colonial era, and Alva's prospective entry into the NSC military alliance would leave the bloc without significant bases in the region. At one point, GPG negotiators considered relinquishing their overlordship if the territory's status as a trade hub could not be maintained. The failure of the talks ushered in a period of diplomatic frigidity between East Ramay and their Goetic counterparts in the GPG and Alva.
Contemporary era (1980 onwards)
In 1981, East Ramay saw a total collapse of state functions as it failed to contain Sang Nila's communist revolution. Following the establishment of Democratic Ramay, remnants of the East Ramayan government found refuge in Singaradscha, reorganizing into the East Ramay Interim Authority. Tensions would reach a boiling point in late October of the same year as Democratic Ramayan forces reached the city's borders. Despite outnumbering the city's defenders with a 4:1 ratio and high morale amongst his troops, Sang Nila personally ordered a halt to the planned attack, fearing a reprisal from Alva and the wider NSC.
The decade saw a multitude of political and economic reforms pushed by Governor-General Lafayette and his successor, Theodoric Sauer, corresponding to the height of Goetic dominance in Singaradscher politics. With their East Ramayan counterparts in disarray, their reforms (known nowadays as the Lafayette-Sauer Reforms) saw the restructuring of the Joint Safety Force from a militarized police force into a modern army, and the inclusion of appointed councilors in the Parliament of Singaradscha.
During the 1980s, Singaradscha saw an explosion in population as skilled migrants fled from the chaos of the East Ramayan Crisis; it saw continued growth as refugees crossed the border following the establishment of Democratic Ramay. The surge in population prompted reforms from the Goetic-dominated government; the establishment of the Singaradscha Housing Authority (Goetic: Wohnungsbaubehörde von Singaradscha) (ERS: Otoritas Perumahan Singaraja) and the reorganization and enlargement of the Joint Safety Force into a de facto military occurred during this time.
Nevertheless, widespread public discontent stemming from the East Ramayan Crisis resulted in multiple protests spanning from 1981 to 1986, including pro-East Ramay and pro-Democratic Ramay protests. In the 1985 Singaradscha riots, pro-DR rioters clashed with GPG and Alvak garrisons. As many as 28 were killed and 252 were injured in the violence, including a dozen killed by the Joint Safety Force via beatings and shootings. The fall of Democratic Ramay and the establishment of South Kesh in 1986 precipitated a decline in numbers of protests. Nevertheless, protests still sporadically occur; pro-DR factions were gradually replaced by pro-South Kesh members over the late 1980s and 1990s.
Singaradscha operates under a parliamentary diarchy, colloquially known as the 1981 System (Goetic: 1981-System) (ERS: Sistem 1981). The Goetic Provisional Government with the advice of the Alvak Minister of Goetic Affairs appoints the Governor-General of Singaradscha; the East Ramay Interim Authority appoints the Governor. The politics of Singaradscha take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy with a unicameral legislature and of a pluriform multi-party system. The prime minister is the chief executive.
The current Prime Minister is x from Democratic Singaradscha (DS). Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both government and parliament.
The Parliament of Singaradscha consists of 90 councillors. Councillors serve for four-year terms, and elections are held between the 30th and 40th days following the dissolution of the previous Parliament. Of the 90 councillors, 70 are directly elected. Half are elected in equal numbers by each of the seven administrative regions, and the other half of the councillors are elected in a single national constituency. The remaining 20 are appointed; 10 from the GPG, and 10 from the ERIA. A week after election day, the councillors hold their inauguration. During this session, the Speaker of the House and their assistant are elected. Following this, Parliament convenes a week later to elect the Prime Minister.
Candidates for prime minister can be proposed by a minimum of 1/5th of the councillors. Parliament then elects the candidate with the absolute majority of votes to be prime minister. The Speaker then notifies the Governor-General and Governor, who jointly assess, approve, and appoint the elected candidate as the prime minister of Singaradscha. Parliament is also responsible for proposing and passing laws.
Parliament also approves the annual budget of the state. The government must submit the proposed budget for parliamentary approval at least two months before the previous budget expires. If the budget is not approved by the first day of the next year, the previous budget is extended until a new one is approved. Once any bill is approved, the Speaker is responsible for presenting it to the Governor and Governor-General so that they may sign and enact it.
If the prime minister is not satisfied with the council, he may request that the Governor and Governor-General dissolve the council and order new elections. In turn, the councillors have the power to remove the prime minister from office. After a motion of censure is approved by at least one-fifth of the councillors, the council will vote and if it receives the absolute majority of votes, the prime minister is removed.
The general structure of administrative divisions in Singaradscha has remained relatively stable throughout its existence. Beginning in 1889, the territory was divided into 6 principal baronies and 1 imperial city for a total of 7 first-level divisions. The structure has been retained upon transitioning to a condominium, with the nomenclature of the divisions changed to districts. Each division except the imperial city has its own principal town which acts as the administrative center of that division. Administrative divisions in Singaradscha have evolved from a purely statistical role to a more administrative and civil role.
Below are the 7 administrative divisions:
As a result of the Singaradscha Agreement of 1925, the Singaradscha Schutztruppe, the main defence force of the colony, was disbanded. In its place, the Joint Safety Force (Goetic: Gemeinsame Sicherheitskraft) (ERS: Pasukan Keamanan Bersama) was established as the state's gendarmerie. Initially organized along the lines of Goetic police organizations, the JSF has evolved over the years to become the state's de facto military as Singaradscha is not permitted a military of its own. The JSF is comprised of two wings: the Public Safety Service (Goetic: Öffentlicher Sicherheitsdienst) (ERS: Layanan Keamanan Publik) comprises the land and air elements, while coastal security falls under the purview of the Naval Office (Goetic: Marineamt) (ERS: Kantor Angkatan Laut).
Historically, Singaradscha relied on East Ramay to fulfill its defensive requirements. However, with the decline of East Ramayan influence in the 1970s and its subsequent collapse and exile in 1981, it now relies on its Goetic counterparts in the GPG and Alva to fill East Ramay's role. Singaradscha currently hosts garrisons from both the Goetic Provisional Government, Alva, and the East Ramay Interim Authority. Locals who can prove at least partial Goetic ancestry and fluency in the Goetic language are eligible to enlist and serve in the GPG's Singaradscha Military Service Corps (Goetic: Singaradsches Militärdienstkorps) (ERS: Korps Dinas Militer Singaraja); locals who can prove heritage from or are a citizen of East Ramay are eligible to enlist and serve in the ERIA's Singaraja Special Command (ERS: Komando Khusus Singaraja).
List of Governors-General
List of Governors
|Term of office||Origin||Background|
|Took office||Left office||Duration|
|28 August 1925||10 April 1931||5 years, 225 days||Tengtromo, Samot-Seratofian East Ramay||N/A|
|-||-||Wahyu Iskandar Hadiman
|10 April 1931||21 April 1931||11 days||Sragen, Samot-Seratofian East Ramay||Member of the House of Representatives for Sragen|
|22 April 1931||2 February 1947||15 years, 286 days||Jakarta, Samot-Seratofian East Ramay||Member of the House of Representatives for Jakarta|
|3 February 1947||5 June 1953||6 years, 123 days||Sragen, Samot-Seratofian East Ramay||Government diplomat|
|4||Tchokora Abimanji Arschananda
|6 June 1953||28 February 1969||15 years, 267 days||Singaradscha, Condominium of Singaradscha||Government diplomat|
|1 March 1969||12 December 1975||6 years, 286 days||Gondhangrejo, East Ramay||East Ramayan Ambassador to Alva|
|13 December 1975||15 April 1978||2 years, 123 days||Cilamaya, East Ramay||Minister of Education of East Ramay (1971-1974)|
|16 April 1978||17 October 1981||3 years, 184 days||Sitaro-taro Utara, East Ramay||Government Diplomat|
|Vacant (18 October 1981 - 12 August 1982)|
|12 August 1982||1 June 1995||12 years, 293 days||Pantai Barat, East Ramay||Second Minister of East Ramay (1970-1972)|
|9||I Nyoman Suryananta
|2 June 1995||7 October 2009||14 years, 128 days||Bangil, Singaradscha||City administrator|
|10||Gusti Agung Kartaraharja
|8 October 2009||5 December 2020||11 years, 59 days||West-Rawa, Singaradscha||City administrator|
|10||I Made Artha Wiguna
|5 December 2020||Present||2 years, 360 days||Singaradscha, Singaradscha||City administrator|
Singaradscha maintains a network of highways and rail lines throughout the territory. As of 2018, there were 603 km of paved roads and 315 km of rail, only 50% of which has been electrified. The port of Singaradscha serves as the main entry and exit point of various goods and containers, and is one of the busiests ports in the region. Lafayette International Airport in Bangil is currently the only airport in the territory, and is a crucial gateway for travellers into the territory.
According to the last census conducted by the bureau of statistics, the Condominium of Singaradscha had a population of 370,428 in 2015. With an area of 446 square kilometers (180 square miles), it recorded a density of 830 people per square kilometer (2125people per square mile) in 2015, much of which is concentrated around the principal city of Singaradscha where more than 40% of the population lives. The population of Singaradscha has grown considerably well from the first census conducted in 1875, which recorded a population of only 31,492. The population was mostly of indigenous origin, with the Galuhan peoples making up 63% of the total population, followed by the Singa people at 15%, East Ramayans at 11%, 8% Goetics, and the rest an agglomeration of other ethnic groups not specially categorized by the census.
Most of the population which reside outside of Singaradscha are concentrated into villages and towns, a title only granted to the district capital. In total, there was 1 city (Singaradscha), 6 towns, and 43 villages spread across 7 districts.
Singaradscha is mainly comprised of four ethnic groups: the Galuhans, the Singas, the Eastern Ramayans and the Goetics. The Galuhans are the native inhabitants of Singaradscha, and form the bulk of the population. The Singas are a fairly new ethnic group, in which the term 'Singa' was only coined in 1905 to refer to the growing population of mixed Galuhan-Goetic descent, comprising around 14.5% of the total population. The Goetics were the colonial masters and leading group during colonial times, and retained significant influence over the condominium after 1925. Goetics make up around 5% of the population. The majority of Goetics and Singas lived in the capital Singaradscha, while Galuhans many live in the countryside, even though they still form a plurality of the population in Singaradscha city. The condominium saw an influx of Eastern Ramayan refugees after civil war broke out in 1980. At least one quarter of all citizens have an Eastern Ramayan background.
The official language for all purposes of administration, commerce, and education, is the Goetic language. Goetic is the medium of instruction in all schools within Singaradscha and was the sole official language spoken in government institutions, including the parliament and in within the ministries. While Goetic was initially only spoken by government officials and the Goetics themselves, it has gradually been used by the native Galuhan peoples which were still the majority in Singaradscha. Besides Goetic, the native Galuhan language serves as the main language for the rest of the population. After the establishment of the condominium, Singaradscha officially recognized the Eastern Ramayan Standard as a 'national language while retaining Goetic as the primary medium of exchange in almost all aspects of government and instruction. Beginning in 1925, all official and public signs must contain both languages.
According to the 2015 census, 96% of all citizens reported 'advanced' or 'intermediate' fluency in Goetic although only 17% of citizens declared Goetic as their mother tongue. 64% of citizens reported fluency in Galuhan. 55% of the population reported Galuhan as their mother tongue. An additional 21% of citizens possessed 'some fluency' in ERS, mostly among the older generation. Other languages spoken in Singaradscha include the native languages of East Ramay such as Yafan and Rejang.