Pan-Artemian Coalition

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Pan-Artemian Coalition
Motto: tbd
Location The Pan-Artemian Coalition strictly encompasses the Artemian Continent.
Headquarters Karlovi, Modrovia(Administrative Headquarters)
Holmgard, Gardarike(Defense Headquarters)
Official languages
Major languages
Type Political and economic union
Membership
Leaders
Sigurður Bensson, Gardic representative
Eduard Pogonat, Modrovian representative
Mikail Ramazija, Seratofian representative
Joinnes Cirz, Mero-Curgov representative
Establishment
• Modrovian proposition
to Gardarike
10 January 1973 (51 years ago) (1973-01-10)
• Signing of Oradea
Accords
12 May 1977 (47 years ago) (1977-05-12)
• Founding of the
Pan-Artemian Coalition
9 September 1984 (39 years ago) (1984-09-09)
Internet TLD .ar
Website
www.pac.ar

The Pan-Artemian Coalition is an intergovernmental Economic and Political Union made up of exclusively Artemian nations. The Pan-Artemian Coalition was proclaimed as a successor of the Artemian Economic and Territorial Integrity Community in 2002 as a result of growing Artemian conservatism and due to shifting politics across the Artemian continent. The organisation implements various political, economic and military treaties signed through out its existence, such as military standardisation, a common internal market, and an internal passport and visa union. The stated aim of the Coalition is to create a united and prosperous Artemia. PAC's Administrative Headquarters reside in Oradea, Modrovia, while the headquarters of Artemian Military Operations are in Holmgard, Gardarike.

The most recent members state to be added to the PAC is Seratof, on the 7th of March 2013. An additional 3 countries participate in the PAC as associate members, enjoying positive relations with the PAC and special benefits akin to partial membership. Some countries within the observers program sit outside the Artemian continent. The Pan-Artemian Coalition has actively sought growth in the Eastern and Central Artemian regions, and has continued to grow its international economic presence through its various multilateral trade agreements and the granting of associate agreements.

Member States

Enlargement/Accession

The Pan-Artemian Coalition has expanded several times with the accession of new member states, the most recent being Seratof in 2013. To join the Pan-Artemian Coalition, an Artemian country must fulfill the economic and political alignment conditions outlined in the Nordsham Declaration. Membership requires that a candidate country has stable, democratic institutions, the rule of law, respect for human rights, and the existence of a functioning market economy. Candidate countries must also demonstrate the ability to take on obligations of membership, including adherence Coalition decision making, upholding PAC treaties, enforcing community legislation, and promoting the aims of the PAC.

Accession for potential members follows a formal process, beginning with a declaration of understanding and ending with the ratification of an accession treaty. The process of admitting new members is headed by the Council of the Coalition, but in practice it is an intergovernmental delegation representing all the member states. All potential member states must first sign and ratify a PAC Association Agreement or PAC-AA, which broadly contains measures of harmonization like a free trade agreement, to bring a country into alignment with PAC member state laws. A country which formally applies for membership is first reviewed by the President of the Coalition Council, who prepares recommendations on the fitness of the candidate country. It is then up to the Council to proceeded with an application.

If the Council agrees to open discussions for a potential new member, then the formal screening process begins. These negotiations are known formally as Pan-Artemian Coalition Membership Accession Negotiation talks (or PAC-MAN talks). The Coalition Council reviews the differences between the candidate's domestic laws and institutions, and those of the PAC; after internal discussion, the Council will open negotiations with the candidate country on "articles" which the PAC feels the member can be bring their laws into alignment. At present, there are forty articles of alignment covering everything from democratic institutions to anti-corruption legislation to financial regulation to environmental protection. Yearly updates on the progress of negotiations are made public by the President of the Council.

If a given article of law is sufficiently aligned and has the institutional capacity to be enforced, the article is considered "accepted", negotiations however can be re-opened if the Council feels that the candidate member has backtracked out of compliance. Once all articles are aligned with the PAC countries, the applicant nation will sign a Treaty of Accession, which is then ratified by all of the PAC member states. The entire process end to end generally takes between 5 years to over a full decade.

Associate States

Albaterra

Albaterra is as of 2020, the only associate in the PAC that is located on the continent of Avalonia. Albaterra first started the process of becoming an associate member of the PAC in 1988 and officially signed a PAC-Albaterra Association Agreement in 1992. During the late 1980's the country was economically stagnant, and struggling with a war-torn south which saw a increaed unemployment, social unrest, crime. The government sought international investments to quell this extremely unstable situation, and gravitated towards Modrovia and the PAC. Albaterra is the only PAC aligned nation that exports tropical produce, lumber, and spirits, and has abundant mineral and energy resources.

Albaterra's association agreement was strongly supported by Modrovia, which had large investments in the area. The President of Albaterra, Leonardo H. Sapateiro repeatedly praised Modrovia for their part in saving the Albaterran economy even went as far as stating during a press conference: "With Modrovian investment and a great leader Albaterra now thrives, but with Modrovian investment and a foolish leader Albaterra would still have been well off."

Albaterra has an association agreement. It is not a candidate for membership so is ineligible for further negotiations, but is instead considered a strategic partner.

Alvakalia

Structure and Internal Politics

Parliament

International Politics and Foreign Relations

Defense

The Pan-Artemian Allied Defense Union (PAADU) is a defensive alliance and central military command of various PAC member states. It is one of the Pillars of the Pan Artemian Coalition. All PAC member states are also a part of the Defense Union, with the exception of Ostboland (which has an opt out). Membership of the Defense Union is mandatory for all future PAC countires. The goal of the Defense Union is to foster military cooperation and provide collective security to PAC member states against outside aggression. The charter of the Defense Union declares that an attack on any member state is considered an attack on all member states, and provides that the member state will come to the aid of the attacked member.

The Defense Union is also authorized to partake in peacekeeping operations abroad. However, participation in coordinated peacekeeping operations is voluntary and carried out by member states at their discretion.

The Defense Commission, headquartered in Gardarike, is responsible for commanding member state militaries in times of an attack, or during authorized peacekeeping operations. Responsibility for commanding member state militaries during operations is given to the Defense Commission, headquartered in Gardarike. The Commission provides a central command structure for PAADU militaries, and is responsible for inter-governmental cooperation, military intelligence sharing, and equipment harmonization. The President of the Commission directs overall military operations. Commission itself is composed of member states' Chiefs of Defense and other high ranking military officers, who advise the President on military policy and strategic objectives, and direct Artemian Command Operations (ACO). During times of war all Defense Union forces report to the Defense Commission.

The Defense Union also mandates that each member state maintains a rotating garisson, or an Expeditionary Force. These Expeditionary Forces which are stationed in other member countries on joint bases alongside military units of the host country. These rotating garrisons are designed to build familiarity between the armed forces of the PAC member states.

Partnerships

Pan-Artemian Coalition External Associate Program

The Pan-Artemian Coalition offers an External Associates Program for nations outside of the Artemian continent, enabling multilateral trade agreements between the PAC member nations and external associates. The typical associate deal will replace an existing cooperation agreement and thus intensifies relations between the signatories of the agreements, and has to meet several criteria, such as the associates must maintain the intention to establish close economic and political cooperation, associates much participate in new joint bodies for the management of the cooperation and both associates and the PAC are to offer Most Favoured Nation treatment.

The PAC will typically offer association in exchange for commitments which can be political, economic or otherwise. Associates may be offered access to PAC internal markets and can be completely exempt from trade tariffs or have the tariffs reduced on a case by case basis, and can be offered technical or financial assistance such as PAC backed loans or support for other national industries and sectors. However association deals are typically used as a framework for greater cooperation between the PAC member nations and nations outside the Artemian continent and can be expanded and changed as needed, as such association can be revoked by the PAC.

Economics

Common Market

The Artemian Common Market & Exchange, known as ACME or simply the Common Market, is the single market of the PAC which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, and services within the Pan-Artemian Coalition. The Common Market is designed to harmonize economic policies across the PAC, with the goal of creating a single Artemian-wide economic union. The market encompasses all PACs member states, and can be extended on a case-by-case basis to observer nations through bilateral treaty negotiations.

The Common Market's goal is to increase competition, specialization, and economies of scale by allowing goods, services, and investment capital to move freely across member states. It is, as previously stated, also intended to drive economic integration. Trade in most goods and services within the PAC is covered by some form of harmonized legislation set out by the Commission of the Common Market.

Free movement of goods within the Common Market operates under the principle of non-discrimination: whereby import restrictions between member states are prohibited. Any quantitative restrictions (i.e. quotas) or similar measures specifically discriminating against another member's products are prohibited. There are some minor exceptions, for example environmental, health, or food safety reasons, or for protection of highly localized, indigenous cultures or artifacts. Most member states must give mutual recognition to each other's regulation standards, while the Common Market harmonizes minimum best practices that products have to adhere to.

Free movement of capital within the Common Market requires the abolition of all capital controls. Member states cannot impose limits on buying currency, company shares or bonds, or financial assets from other member states. Member states cannot require pre-approval by their governments for foreign investments. The imposition of any capital gains taxes, corporation taxes, or financial transaction taxes by one member state must be uniformly imposed on other member state companies and citizens. Certain "excessive ownership" of corporations by member governments is considered unlawful, though this concept is the subject of ongoing negotiation, as outright nationalization is still allowed under current rules. Financial capital within the PAC can be transferred in any amount from one member state to another, and is subject only to domestic wire transfer costs; this includes the use of credit cards, debit cards, and checks issued in member states used to pay for transactions in other member states. The Common Market Commission and the largest financial institutions within the Common Market operate a public-private clearing house, KACHING, which clears electronic fund transfers between member states.

Free movement of services within the Common Market includes the right of establishing a business and/or providing commercial and professional services. Incorporation a business in a member country can not discriminate against other members of the Common Market. The Common Market imposes minimum standards and rules to harmonize basic laws applicable to corporate establishment, and also protect investors. The Common Market does allow a large business in a member state, if it so chooses, to incorporate as a Super-PAC, which allows the said company to automatically operate across all member states upon incorporation. In any case, member states must recognize companies chartered in other member states, though states can impose specific establishment requirements on foreign companies that conform to a public interest, for example clamping down on tax evasion. Citizens of one member state which meet the migration requirements of another member state may not face overly burdensome licensure requirements to practice their trade, nor be subject to rules which impose an undue burden as compared to domestic practitioners. The Common Market has imposed a harmonization rule that compensates professionals for experience already obtained in a member state. For example, if member state A requires 1000 hours of training to receive a given licensure, and a professional from member state B needed 900 hours to receive their licensure, the professional from member state B would only need to complete an additional 100 hours of training to practice in member state A. Currently, questions surrounding the provision of education and healthcare are subject to intense negotiation among member states.

Industry

Investment

The Artemian Investment Bank (AIB) is a publicly owned financial institution whose shareholders are PAC member states. It is not a central bank of the Pan-Artemian Coalition, rather, it operates more like an investment bank, venture capital fund, and development fund to further specific PAC policy goals, like economic development and commercial integration. The bank's policy goals and decision-making are overseen by the member states of the PAC, and is in charge of lending public funds for specific projects. Most of the funds of the AIB are redirected into member states, though select non-PAC countries can have preferential access to AIB financing.

The AIB's provides financial support and guarantees for a variety of purposes, like small and medium enterprises (SMEs), underdeveloped export industries, infrastructure projects, and revitalization schemes for {wpl|depression|economically depressed}} regions. The bank offers secured loans, export subsidies, equity purchases and insurance underwriting services for its clients. The bank uses its own credit rating, and reserves contributed by member states to raising equivalent funds on capital markets. The banks main policy goals are financing viable capital projects, promoting SMEs and exports, encouraging environmental sustainability, guaranteeing energy security, supporting infrastructure development, and creating lasting public-private partnerships.

Infrastructure

The Artemian Energy Committee, which predated the Common Market and the PAC, was an Artemian common energy market which had oversight in the production and distribution of energy producing materials to (now) PAC member states, covering sources like coal, oil, and uranium. In 1983 the AEC was merged into the regulatory authority of the Commission.

In 2018, the members of the Common Market agreed to a $400 billion dollar investment program to construct an Artemian Super Grid by 2030, an network of ambitious infastructure construction and upgrade schemes to interconnect the electricity markets of the member states. The construction programs are geared towards cross-border power interconnections, primarily in Central Artemia, so PAC countries can more easily buy and sell surplus electricity to their neighbors. Proponents of the Artemian Super Grid argue that it will lower electricity prices for consumers and create inter-regional stability in the electrical grid. Part of the investment scheme includes investments in power system monitoring and additional load capacity in safety critical areas to prevent cascading failures. Upon completion of the Artemian Super Grid, overall regulation of the electricity market will fall under the purview of the Common Market Commission.

Travel

The PAC Travel Network is an agreement among member states to harmonize their visa policies on a common schedule so as to not discriminate in travel against citizens of other member states. Citizens of PAC countries are giving visa-free access to fellow PAC states for up to 90 days in any 180 day period. Beyond that, the common schedule, for example, determines the different categories of visas that can exist between member states, and regulates their duration. For example, PAC citizens are subject to a single class of tourist visas according to the common schedule. A tourist visa in Modorvia has the same restrictions and duration as a tourist visa issued in Gardarike for any PAC citizen. These special visas are designated by the issuing country with the prefix Art-, to distinguish them from visas for non-PAC citizens.

The Travel Network includes reduced-speed vehicle checks at national borders, and expedited customs lanes at airports and points of entry for citizens of member states.

Air travel in the PAC is regulated by the Artemian Single Aviation Market (A-SAM), a single market in aviation services across member states. A-SAM liberalized the air transport industry by allowing any company from any PAC member state to fly between any airports in other PAC member states, allowing "foreign" airlines to provide purely domestic flights. When A-SAM entered effect in the mid 2000s, the single aviation market superseded existing unilateral, bilateral and multilateral air services agreements among member states.

Trade

The Artemian Customs Union (ACU) is a customs union which consists of all of the member states of the Pan-Artemian Coalition. There are no tariffs or similar non-tariff barriers to trade between members of the customs union. Members of the ACU impose a common external tariff on all imported goods entering the Common Market of the PAC. Tariff rates are agreed upon via multilateral negotiations among members, and as a result these rates are complex and vary depending on the specific type of product imported.

The Commission of the Common Market is responsible for leading negotiations with other countries and trading blocs. The full tariff rates apply to countries that do not have a free trade agreement with the PAC or countries not on a recognized exemption scheme (such as the External Associates Program,). Members of the External Associates Program are either given Most Favored Nation status or have special rates applied after bilateral negotiations. PAC observers are granted a free trade agreement with the Common Market.