Kodeshia

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Empire of Kodeshia

山河间帝國
Shānhé Jiān Dìguó
Flag of Kodeshia
Flag
Imperial Emblem
Imperial Emblem
Motto: 民族,统一,皇帝!
Mínzú, tǒngyī, huángdì!
("Nation, Unity, Emperor!")
Anthem: 頌皇国旗!
Sòng huáng guóqí!
("Praise the Imperial Flag!")
Area controlled by Kodeshia shown in dark green; regions claimed but not controlled shown in light green.
Area controlled by Kodeshia shown in dark green; regions claimed but not controlled shown in light green.
Capital Songhari
Largest city Chenghai
Official languages Guoyu
Recognised regional languages
List of languages
Ethnic groups
List of ethnicities
Demonym
  • Kodeshi
  • Kodeshian
Government Unitary dominant-party parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy
• Emperor
Mengqi
Zhao Changfu
Liao Dengjie
Legislature Imperial Parliament
Imperial Council
National Representative Assembly
Establishment
2800 BCE
256 BCE
12 May 1928
24 June 1964
8 November 2012
Area
• Total
1,948,907 km2 (752,477 sq mi)
• Water (%)
4.09
Population
• 2019 estimate
500,012,074
• 2010 census
425,464,380
• Density
256.6/km2 (664.6/sq mi)
GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate
• Total
$4.343 trillion[1]
• Per capita
$8,687[2]
GDP (nominal) 2019 estimate
• Total
$1.761 trillion [3]
• Per capita
$3,523[4]
Gini (2017) negative increase 38.4
medium
HDI (2010) Increase 0.698
medium
Currency Huizi (Hz; 會子) (KHZ)
Time zone +5
Date format yyyy-mm-dd
yyyy年m月d日
Driving side left
Calling code +14
Internet TLD .ko

Kodeshia (/Koʊˈdɛzhə/ (About this soundlisten) Koh-DEH-zha; Guoyu: 山河间; Shānhé Jiān), officially the Empire of Kodeshia (Guoyu: 山河间帝國;Shānhé Jiān Dìguó), is a sovereign state in Kesh, constituting the home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, located on Anterra. Covering an area of approximately over 1.9 million square kilometres, it is the world's third largest country by both land and total area.[5] Kodeshia is bordered to the north by Qarai, Alva, Bakfong, to the west by HCCK, to the southwest Qingcheng and to the east by Selengeria. Other neighbouring countries include Akiteiwa and Shimakawa, The country is divided into 21 provinces and four special subnational divisions with varying degrees of self-government and authority: the Special Capital Region of Songhari, the Special municipalities of Chenghai and Jianghua, and the Special Autonomous Province of Yuhai. It has a population of over 500 million inhabitants. Kodeshia's capital city is Songhari, while its most populous city is Chenghai.

Kodeshia is considered a cradle of civilisation, with its known history beginning with some of the world's earliest ancient civilisations in the fertile basin of the Changnan River (长南河) in the Southern Plains. For millennia, Kodeshia's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, known as dynasties, beginning with the semi-mythological Ying'guo dynasty (c. 2800 BCE). Since 256 BCE, when the Zu dynasty first conquered several smaller states to form a Kodeshi empire, the country has seen cycles of expansion, prosperity along with periods of decline and fracture. The centuries long period of absolute monarchy was ended with the establishment of the Imperial State of Kodeshia at the end of the Grand Campaigns. But this new constitutional monarchy was short lived as political deadlock descended into a brutal civil war in which the republican rebels overthrew the old regime and established the State of Kodeshia led by war hero Guo Guotai.

Following the death of Emperor Qinghuiguo in 1964 the Guoist regime was thrown into chaos and Guo Guotai already in poor health died months later causing a power struggle that led to the Xuanyi Restoration. These events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Kodeshia. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Kodeshia's political and social structure. The Constitution remained but it was amended to give the Emperor near-absolute power modelled along the lines of Bakfong's monarchy which backed the restoration along with Alva, who backed the democrats more than the royalists. However to win the support of the democratic factions within the government the parliament was maintained and a pathway to a more democratic constitutional monarchy was promised yet no timeline was given. The stability of this new system was shaken almost immediately by a coup d'état attempt led by the Military Generals against the democratic parties in the government leading to a large scale insurgency and decade long conflicts. Kodeshia's political system combines elements of a presidential democracy and an absolute monarchy, with the ultimate authority vested in an Emperor or Empress. The Kodeshia government is widely considered to be authoritarian, with significant constraints and abuses against human rights and civil liberties.

Kodeshia's history since has been characterised by periods of rapid economic change and political instability. The country continues to face challenging problems, including pollution, natural disasters, sectarian violence, poverty, illiteracy, and corruption. Despite these factors, Kodeshia has achieved significant progress in social and economic development as a result of rapid economic growth and industrialisation and improving health and food production services reducing poverty rates substantially. Geographically, its diversity of landscapes, ranging from tropical rainforests to desert mountain steppes and temperate climate zones. The country is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the Unaligned Nations Consortium, and a founding member of the Kesh-Tethys Economic Cooperation and Sanqing.

Etymology

The name "Kodeshia" has a long and complex history that is intertwined with the country's past and culture. The term was first documented in a 15th-century translation of a journal written by Artemian explorers. However, the origin of the name is still a matter of debate among scholars.

The official name of the modern state is the "Empire of Kodeshia" (Guoyu: 山河间帝國;Shānhé Jiān Dìguó). The shorter form is "Kodeshia" Shānhéjiān (山河间) literally means "Between mountains and rivers" and is a reflection of the nation's unique natural landscape and has its origins in ancient times. It had been used to by scholars, poets, and travellers for centuries to describe the land, its people, and its culture. The alternative Jiāngguó (江國) literally means river state, which alludes to the foundation myths of the first ancient semi-mythological Ying'guo dynasty. However, this name is not in common use and is generally only found in historical texts.

The demonym, that is, the name for the people, and adjectival form "Kodeshi" or occasionally "Kodeshian" developed later. Some scholars have suggested that the word Kodeshia is derived from the name of the old imperial empires a proposal that has found widespread support, although there are also a number of alternative suggestions.

But it is also sometimes known as Kòudàlù (竘大陆), from Kòu ("governance"), dà ("big") and lù ("land"). This usage came about after the end of Imperial rule and differs from the common English word Kodeshia which is derived from the old Imperial name, Kòudìzhōu (竘帝州), from Kòu ("governance"), Dì ("emperor") and zhōu ("state").

History

Prehistory

Prehistory of Kodeshia refers to the period before written records were kept and before the rise of civilization in the region. The evidence of early human occupation in what is now Kodeshia dates back to the Paleolithic era, approximately one to two million years ago. This evidence includes fossilized bones of various animal species, which indicate that early human hunters had a significant impact on the fauna of the region at that time.

The Longbei River system is considered the backbone of Kodeshia and has been densely inhabited throughout history. As a result, there is evidence of human occupation and various societies throughout the region. The earliest evidence of human settlement in the region is from the Paleolithic era, during which time various types of tools have been discovered. These tools, such as stone hand-axes and other implements, suggest that human beings lived in the region during this time, but the evidence of their daily lives is limited to the tools they left behind.

The Paleolithic inhabitants of Kodeshia show no signs of cultivation or domestication of animals, and their way of life appears to have been simple, with a focus on hunting and gathering. However, a significant event in Kodeshi prehistory was the slow penetration of the first rice farmers from the north, which began in the late 3rd millennium BCE. The earliest signs of these rice farmers are small settlements along the Changnan River. Over the next several hundred years, these settlements slowly expanded and took over the region as more and more farmers settled in the area. These early farmers grew crops and raised animals, including oxen.

The origins of these rice farmers are still a topic of debate among historians, with some suggesting that they may have come from Southeast Kesh or even from Avalonia, this is part of the wider out of Avalonia theory put forward by some historians. However, it is clear that their arrival in Kodeshia marked a significant change in the region's history, leading to the development of agriculture and the rise of civilization. Archaeological evidence from this period includes pottery, which was used for cooking and storage, as well as more sophisticated tools and implements for farming.

Early dynastic rule

The beginning of the kingdom of Kodeshia began with several small cities and villages near the Changnan River between the mountain ranges in the south and the fertile basin of the Longbei River in the north which later came to be known as the 'Golden Plain'. The city-states of this period were each led by a powerful ruler or tribal group usually known as the "King" (Guoyu: 王; pinyin: wáng). The period between 2800 to 2100 BCE was marked by the rise of many tribes under this title. Some were already in control of small city-states while others were still nomadic. The beginning of this period is marked by the ascension of the first "King" or ruler known as Ying'guo. The "King" of the tribe was a powerful warrior who united several small tribes in the area by about 2800 BCE.

According to some reports, his reign was marked by a series of natural disasters. Others, however, say that he was a benevolent ruler who brought the people together but was struck down by a plague. After his death, his various tribes became disorganized; conflicts broke out among his successor. The "King" of the Shanyue tribe, Leigu, was not officially declared the new ruler by his peers, but rather took power by force. The other tribes eventually agreed to live under his rule in an uneasy alliance. After a few decades, the people of the region grew restless under Shanyue rule and a series of uprisings began. The Shanyue king responded by forming alliances with other nearby tribes. In 2080 BCE, a coalition was formed and invaded Ying'guo's former territory. The tribes were eventually successful, driven off or absorbed the tribe and incorporated them into the new coalition. This became know as the Guzhu dynasty.

The city-states of the period were fairly small. The largest would only have held about ten thousand people, though some of the tribes were as large as several hundred thousand. The people farmed and herded, and some hunted. They used simple tools and weapons made from wood and stone. Some used pottery. Most lived in small houses. There were no cities as such, just several tribal towns that would occasionally unite for military purposes. They worshipped many gods, nature spirits and ancestor worship. Religion was important, but not as much as the other aspects of life.

Some tribes used the mountains as their main residence. The largest of these were the Youling, who lived in the mountainous region to the north. They were divided into several tribes, but most notable were the three which held sway over the three largest cities: Youling, Zhao and Shanyue. They vied with each other for influence and power. Shanyue were essentially the same as the Zel tribe, but also included many immigrant Shanyue from further north. Zhao was a loose alliance of several warring houses. The people of the region, despite their tribal origins, were increasingly becoming a single entity. The numerous wars and struggles for power had drawn many people together. Trade had increased, and there was an extensive road system. There was a strong desire for the people to be unified, not just by race, but by culture and language.

The concept of nationalism, which would become a major political force in the coming centuries, first arose. Youling and Shanyue were the first to develop this idea. The Zel tribe, still ruled by the royal family of Shanyue, was the last to do so. The rulers of Zel were strong believers in maintaining the status quo, which often resulted in them being opposed by nationalist movements. By 1800 BCE, the desire for independence was becoming more widespread among the people. Most of the cities were so opposed that they made contact with the rulers of the Zhao and Youling cities. It was agreed that an alliance would be beneficial to all involved, and three cities made pacts. The rulers of these three cities would meet at the border and help coordinate the military effort towards the other cities. This meeting became known as the "Conference of the Three Tribes". The three cities of the "tribes" were really just small kingdoms at this point. The rulers were still generally though to exist under the Ying'guo dynasty.

Despite them agreeing to this pact, the unity of the Ying’guo dynasty and the three cities of the tribes fell apart and they continued to fight. By 1300 BCE this new alliance had consolidated into the united Guo dynasty, with the royal family of Shanyue at its head. The rulers of the cities had not been content with just that though; as it was power and control that they were after, not simple conquest. They had struck deals with the ruler of the Youling tribe, and the ruler of the Yourling tribe in return for military and financial support they had helped them to secure. The rulers of the cities had become quite the military power and were using their new strength to expand their own empires.

In 856 BCE, this pattern of expansion and consolidation was broken by the appearance of a new power on the horizon. The unity broke and factions fought against each other in a struggle for power until 842 BCE. By this time the powerful Xian dynasty took power after defeating the rival factions in battle. The rulers of the three cities were furious by this. They had expected to become strong powers, not be subsumed into the ever-expanding Xian dynasty. This was a period where many rebellions occurred, some successful, but the most lasting one was the Sanguang Rebellion. It was a period of interstate power struggles, internal conflict was also rife. The leaders of the three cities met during this time and formed a new pact to fight against the forces of the “King”. The three cities prepared their armies for war. The rulers of the cities had their best and most loyal troops, but the rulers of the Zhao and Youling cities had similar arrangements. The war was brutal, and it took place on several fronts. The rulers of the three cities could not afford to have the full might of the “King” directed against them, fortunately this was also the period where the “King” had become obsessed with defending his borders.

Smaller conflicts were fought which suited the rebels just fine, as they had more time to prepare for a counterattack. This went on for another fifteen years, each side making progress and then being forced back by the other. During this time, the rulers of the three cities became more and more entrenched in their own beliefs. They each believed they were doing the right thing, that they were serving the gods by fighting the Xian dynasty. The rulers were sometimes heard speaking of how their ancestors would be able to look up and see their actions as the ultimate fulfilment of their faith. The first fifteen years of the rebellion war had been the hardest. The progress made during this time had depleted the ranks of many villages and towns, further straining the resources of the people. After two centuries, the people were finding it more difficult to survive.

In the second century a change occurred. With each passing year, more and more people found themselves able to work the land again, or even start farming it for the first time because of this progress. The people were living better lives now than they ever had. The rulers and their armies were making sacrifices, trading food and goods for the right to work the land. The people also found ways to deal with the excess population. However, all this change had a downside. The population was growing again and there were simply not enough jobs to go around. The rulers were having to rethink some of their policies.

By the century's middle half, more and more of the rulers had abandoned their war on the people. They continued to tax the people harshly but distributed the money more equally.

In the century's later half, it became apparent that the population growth could no longer be stopped. The population explosion was causing other problems as well. The towns and villages, though self-sustaining, could still not support a large enough population. Nothing could have prepared them for such a long, monsoon. It rained for over a year. It flooded the low-lying areas, and many swamps and marshes became large lakes. The rivers overflowed their banks and caused massive floods. There was no way to predict such a thing, and no way to prepare. When the rains stopped, the world had changed completely. The land had risen several feet and cracked in many areas. Mountain ranges shifted or collapsed entirely. Many tribes were wiped out in this time. Many other bands took what little resources they had left and made a run for the hills. It took many months for even the most resilient of groups to make it to where they could farm again. Those that didn't die off completely died of starvation when the soil was unable to support life anymore. This great disaster caused chaos for the ruling Xian dynasty that had survived the rebellions and wars, but the floods and monsoons were too much.

Ultimately by 256 BCE the Xian dynasty fell apart and was succeeded by the Zu dynasty that implemented transformative and lasting changes. Creating huge public projects like a new dams and water management systems and roads and canals to help trading. Eventually this would lead to the population explosion and mass migration to the cities that we see today. The Zu dynasty is also credited with the formation of the tile of Emperor replacing that of ‘’King’’.

Imperial Kodeshia

In the later stages of the Zu dynasty the concept known as the "Tianren", or literally "The Person of Heaven". The ruler of the Empire was called the "Tianren", and it was he who ensured the prosperity of the Empire. The Emperor was the "Tianren" during most of his reign. The concept of a "Tianren" was first introduced by Teacher Jin Ying in the Later Zu period.

The teacher saw that the Emperor was confused on his role, leaving material reality and moving towards fruitless mysticism. He wrote the Lectures of the Teacher in somewhere around Western Kodeshia or modern Hydar and was purported to go on a great expedition through the mountains to deliver it to the emperor. The Emperor had him executed, but his work was not lost due to being found by a young general. This young general would go on to form the Zheng Dynasty using Jin Ying's precepts.

His work would become one of the Five Classics in Kodeshia. The concept of the "Tianren" is as follows: The person who is Tianren is thought to be a deity in themselves, and the temporary controller of all forces assigned to them by Heaven. Thus all states that are in union with heaven must give deference to them, and the holder of the position must create "strong rules, and strong punishments" to regulate the states beneath them. Tianren's grace and competence in governing is thought to affect the people and earth and if they fails in their job "the people will fall into degeneracy, the fields will fail, the sciences will be lost, and the empire will decay away from heaven". When the circle of states breaks up again with the position of Tianren is in multiple hands, heaven has abandoned the current dynasty and is looking for another. This is the role of the ruler of the Empire, which Emperor Han Tzu solemnly accepted and fulfilled. He was "Tianren" and everything was legal if done by him. In the beginning of the Zheng era, Emperor Han Tzu was the only ruler and he ruled by divine right. Everything was legal if Emperor Han Tzu decided it was. This of course created a need for the system of checks and balances on the ruler, but not on the ruler's subjects.

Emperor Han Tzu never extended to his people the grace and competence he showed to his soldiers. His understanding of the role of the ruler was that of a warrior, not a statesman. As a result, the Empire stagnated and declined. When this attitude became the norm for the ruler, as it has for the last three rulers of the Empire, it created a great divide in the people of the Empire. The educated and the peasants saw it as an insult that their lives did not matter to the noble rulers of the Empire. The noble rulers saw it to use the glory of the ruler to control the masses. This resulted in the peasants becoming increasingly desperate as they lost their lands, animals, homes and in some cases their entire villages.

Three dynasties era

This led to the decline of the Zheng dynasty, leading to the Three dynasties era with the Empire fracturing into the northern Bei dynasty, the southern Nan dynasty and the central Yang dynasty. The Zheng dynasty lacked the power with its decline and it was dependent on the protection of neighbouring dynasties. By shifting alliances the Zheng dynasty was able to survive and outlast the breakaways regions. But it was a period of war and chaos. It is of note that all rulers in the Three State period besides the Zheng were directly in charge of the military.

This period of separate weaker dynasties would last until the Jie dynasty appeared around 503 CE having slowly consolidating its forces to slowly conquer the smaller states with the southern Nan dynasty having already outlasted the northern and middle kingdoms by this period. The Jie dynasty claimed the divine rule of Tianren and that they were the true successor to the Zheng dynasty which collapsed after the loss of its ally in the Nan state. The rule of the Jie period was marked by strong rule but failed to relive the glory of the Zu period.

This led to the River of Blood war which occurred around the year 495 CE. The war was a result of the Nan wanting to see the destruction of the Jie for it's expansionism and arrogance. But the arrival of the skilled nomadic cavalry forces of the northern Xi tribes allowed them to take on the mighty southern kingdom as a counter measure to stop the threat of total destruction.

The war ended with the Jie in complete control of all lands west of the mountains and the southern kingdom focused on holding on to what it had. This was not enough and by 503 CE the Jie forces had completely taken all the territory of the Nan dynasty and its forces were wiped out in a bloody siege on the capital and this led to sudden collapse of the Zheng in the face of the overwhelming force. The Jie dynasty became the Tianren and ruled on the throne until 712 CE.

Emperor Han Tze was only twenty-five when he took power over the Empire with no serious rivals. It was a good start, but the years proved to be difficult ones. As he reached his forties, the mortality rate for the rulers of the Empire was high. Most only ruled for a few years and the oldest to rule were all dead. Han Tze was no exception; within a decade, he suffered three major defeats at the hands of the Xi, a group of barbarians to the northeast. He also suffered two rebellions, the first being led by his daughter Han Shuang and and the second by his sister, Empress Miao Yin.

Fortunately, the first was put down quickly but the second could not be crushed due to its extensive nature. If those were not enough, the land was suffering. Disasters of varying proportions ravaged the Empire. Famine, droughts, floods, storms, blights and other natural and unnatural causes all took their toll. The population was also suffering as the number of refugees and those wanting to leave the Empire continually outnumbered those that desired to remain loyal to the Empire. This led to the great period of war and the so called five kingdoms era, Emperor Han Tze's sister Empress Miao Yin led the Jiao dynasty and his right hand advisor, Chancellor Lu Yuan betrayed him and led the Wu dynasty. Within a decade the Empire had collapsed. The Xi tribes of barbarians were taking advantage of the chaos and encroached further east.

Five kingdoms era

The Five kingdoms were established in the old heartlands and while some were willing to pay tribute, others desired to be independent. There were also the Xi tribes of barbarians to the northeast and Hui west. The Xi to the northeast were collaborators due to a pact between their tribal chief and the traitor emperor. They accepted Jiao dynasty rule and acted as a buffer between the Xi to the west and the Lolo people. The Hui to the west had no such pact and were fierce warriors. They were prevented from expanding due to the rise of the military led Wu kingdom which expanded and ultimately became independent under their leader Li Dak Koo.

The Jiao dynasty took up the bulk of the old Empire's heartland with the Wu kingdom rising to the east. Soon the Shi kingdom rose in the south made up of the ministerial and scholars from the old Empire. These three kingdoms between them roughly covered the old Empire's territory although each was very different from each other. Empress Miao Yin died at the age of 58 in 734 CE leading to an immediate succession crisis. A battle between factions ensued but it ended with Jiao kingdom collapsing as various nobles chose their own successors. While the Jiao kingdom continued until for a further ten years it was reduced greatly under General Hou Xun before finally falling entirely. The main reason why it collapsed so quickly was due to a lack of a clear successor. The Shang dynasty that rose in the north from the mountains and the Jiang dynasty led by one of the top military leaders of the Jiao kingdom General Ma Dai but he lacked political experience yet was able to exact defeat on both the Wu and Jiao kingdoms. This period was marked by conflict between all these factions as they tried to carve out a piece of the old empire.

As time went on, war and conflict were becoming a common way of life as resources became scarce. But it was the Jiao dynasty that was first to fall, after a brutal war with the Xi tribes and fighting with the Wu dynasty and succession crisis. By the 744, the Xi tribes had overrun all of the Jiao kingdom and what was left was slowly taken back by the Wu kingdom which assimilated it fully into their culture. The Jiao king Hou Xun was hunted down and executed. But this conflict took a toll on the Wu kingdom and it fell to the Xi barbarians and its wars with the Jiang kingdom in 753 CE. Left was the southern Shi kingdom, the northern Shang kingdom and the eastern Jiang kingdom.

By the 770s, war had become a way of life to the various kingdoms. The Xi tribe also took advantage of the chaos by expanding into the eastern kingdom. The Jiang kingdom fell to the Xi tribes and conflict with the Shang in 774 CE having been greatly weaken from its wars against the Wu. Left was the northern Shang dynasty and the southern Shi dynasty which had expanded greatly. The Xi tribe's expansion only brought them closer to the Shang dynasty.

In 784 CE, a Xi invasion force of thousands arrived at the borders of the Shang Kingdom led by their Chief Xi Mongke. He made a direct threat to the king of the time, Kao Wang Wei. The king chose to appease him by sending a small gift of two horses and a silk robe. But this wasn't enough and the Xi tribe razed the city which led to the complete destruction of the Shang dynasty. King Kao Wang Wei led the last of the Shang soldiers to battle and was killed. The remnants of the army fled before the Xi tribe although some retreated to a distant stronghold where they continued to fight. The Xi tribe declared themselves rulers of all they had conquered which led to the rise of several petty warlords in the east. While the Shi dynasty had become the dominant kingdom in the region disputes within their own forces led to creation of the Xie dynasty in 786 CE.

The split happened as the leading factions within the Imperial court grew tired of the Shi emperor's failure to maintain the power structure which allowed him to rule unchecked; it also resulted from factional infighting among his generals. The General Li Wei (李謁) was the most powerful military leader and widely credited with crushing the Xi tribes threatening the kingdom. But after the death of Emperor Fu Youde (扶游德) in 780 CE. However Li Wei also suffered an incapacitating stroke three years later, and died soon afterwards. This left control of the government to his wife, Princess Xu Zhenying (许貞英), a daughter of the late Emperor Fu Youde (扶游德). At first she controlled only a small factions within the capital but she was able to raise sufficient funds for her armies through taxation and trade deals. She recruited several former ministers who were opposed to her husband's policies into her inner circle and replaced them with her allies. By 785 CE, her army was large enough that she could defeat rival claimants in a number of battles, culminating with victory over Li Wei's brother Li Wu (李武) in 786 CE. In that year she took the title "Emperor" herself.

Imperial reunification

After several centuries of conflict and chaos the Xie dynasty took over the Shi dynasty and became the now dominant Empire expanding to retake all the lost lands crushing the Xi tribes as they expanded. As empress, she continued the policy of increasing state revenue while lowering taxes to promote economic growth and thus strengthen national strength against any foreign threat. By now she had established a new capital at Chenghai where she lived surrounded by armed guards. It has been said that she enjoyed riding horseback at night and lighting bonfires around the palace walls. Within a few years of assuming power, the Empress had increased tax revenues and reduced spending by one half; she had built a network of canals throughout the kingdom reducing flooding and reorganized all provincial administration providing stability after decades of warfare; she rebuilt temples damaged during war; restored religious and cultural monuments; established schools for scholars and craftsmen; constructed irrigation works so that fields no longer needed to be flooded every spring or autumn as they did before; The Empire's heartland in the west saw warlordism and eventual power grabs by several groups. The remnants of the Xi tribe in the east were slowly pushed back and absorbed by the various powers in the land. To the southwest in modern day nation of Qingcheng which had been free under the Yan dynasty was reintegrated back into the grand empire by the powerful Xie dynasty.

The Tianren hand been restored by Empress Xu Zhenying, she died at the age of 81 in 831 CE. She was succeeded by her daughter Fú Yùdì (扶裕帝), aged only 21 when she took the throne, she ruled for over sixty years until her death at the age of 63, long enough to consolidate the gains her mother had made. Her reign would inherit the challenge of the rival new emerging Min dynasty in 790 CE which led to conflict between the two states. In 860 CE, the Xi tribe led by Chief Xi Mongke died out with his sons taking power over the various warlords in the land, though this was not in unity. A war of attrition broke out and the Xi tribe was largely destroyed, many assimilated into the various cultures but the Xi Mongke's legacy lived on.

The Min kingdom grew in power led by a leader known as Chong Mengxiong (崇孟雄) who was said to have been able to use his political skills in a way not seen since the time of the three dynasties, and under his leadership the military power of Min kingdom would eclipse even that of Xie Empire. Empress Fú Yùdì suffered from many shocks ruling the Xie Empire including a devastating flood in 863 CE and an armed rebellion led by a eunuch Wei Haiyan (衛海彥) in 873 CE. He is recorded to be cruel man, perhaps motivated traitorous deal with Chong Mengxiong. This was ultimately was the end of the Xie Empire and the Min assimilated all of its territory becoming the new dominant force. The last remnants of the Xi tribe were assimilated by the Min or fled to the furthest reaches of the land, the Xi tribe was finally defeated. In its glory days the great Min empire spanned most of eastern Kodeshia, Qingcheng, HCCK and parts of Selengeria and Nanwen.

Chong Mengxiong died at the age of 86 in 890 CE having unified the nation but never took the title of emperor. It would be left to his successor to create the first truly united state in history that would become known as the Min Empire. Having no sons or nephews to succeed him he chose his youngest sibling Duchess Qin Dingfang (秦鼎方) as his heir presumptive instead, thus founding what became known as the Min Dynasty which lasted until 889 CE when it was overthrown by Chong Yuanzong's army after a series of rebellions. Empress Qin Dingfang would be the first Empress of a united Kodeshi Empire but here reign was short-lived as she die in childbirth in 876 CE at the age of 30 to her son and successor Emperor Huan Gong. He became the first official Emperor of a united Kodeshi Empire but since he was a minor an a princess regent served in his stead until his coronation in 879CE when he was 11 years old, this girl is thought to have been either Chong Mengxiong's daughter Chong Nüying (崇女英) or his niece Chong Yuhua (崇玉華). The next two centuries saw the Min empire rise from strength to strength with the last period being its most glorious.

Much is written about this so-called glory period for the Empire. The Emperor aged only 13 years old suffered a slow mental degeneration and a loss of appetite. He died in 889 CE without a clear successor. But his son was not of age, so the Ling dynasty slowly seized power while the court waged civil war between three factions; those supporting Empress Dowager Duan Zhengli, another backed by Prince Lü Chengyi (呂承裔) and the third backing Princess Pei Cheng. Additionally Chong Mengxiong's daughter Chong Nüying (崇女英) as Princess Regent attempted regain power with support of her niece Duchess Chong Yuhua (崇玉華) but these attempts were thwarted as eunuchs poisoned Princess Regent Chong Nüying and Duchess Chong Yuhua was killed on 22 March 890 CE at the hand of the prime minister Yang Qing. A military commander named Zhang Xiong, who was related to the late Duchess Chong Yuhua, managed to gain control of much of the capital. But he failed to capture the emperor's tomb. On 23 June, Empress Dowager Duan took advantage of a riot caused by the rival factions fighting inside the palace complex, taking over the imperial residence and establishing the Ling family as the new ruling dynasty. This would become known as the Grand Rebellion. After the defeat of the rebel faction in 892, many were forced to commit suicide or exiled. Including General Zhang Xiong and Prince Lü Chengyi who were both exiled to what is now present day Nanwen. Empress Duan Zhengli succeeded to the throne and her rule was a time of peace and prosperity with slow but steady military expansions south into Nanwen. This began the creation of sea trading ports and expansion of the trade routes by land through to Prabhat.

She would rule until her death in 927 CE at the age of 72 leaving behind no heirs. Her sister, Empress Shao, served as regent for one year before appointing her uncle, Li Hongyi as Emperor Ling Zu (靈祖) under the name Emperor Zhongxuan (重宣). However, this move proved unpopular among the nobility which led to rebellion that lasted four years ending when Emperor Zhongxuan abdicated his title to his nephew, Yuan Shundi, also called Prince Guo of Qin (郡王郭), born of his aunt Lady Cheng. Emperor Yuan Shundi sought to conquer all of territory that modern day Nanwen. Despite having subdued the northern portions of Nanwen, the southern provinces were still beyond his control and remained in their own autonomous regions and Emperor Yuan Shundi personally lead an army to capture them in 940CE after having appointed his cousin, Yuan Dao as Imperial Protectorate during his conquests of Southern Nanwen. This campaign was disastrous however, due to illness amongst his generals causing him to lose large numbers of troops along with many more men deserting from his armies. He lost any chance of conquering the remaining provinces as he returned home suffering from ill health. In 960 CE, he died and was succeeded by Empress Shi Qiongxian (史瓊仙 ). Empress Shi Qiongxian ruled for nearly sixty years but she inherited a troubled military situation following the loss by Emperor Yuan Shundi. Her government also suffered from heavy corruption throughout its history. This led to a number of uprisings which caused her much concern. She began by restoring the power of local officials. Nearing the end of her reign a period of famines and floods occurred which led to food shortages. These led to widespread protests which led to her death in 1002CE at the age of 62. There were no direct heirs so her younger brother's son took the throne as Emperor Huizong (徽宗). However, there had been three rebellions that year leading to turmoil in the country. This would be the end for the Ling dynasty in 1023 CE as the Imperial court factions battled each other over succession. The eunuchs and nobles who supported Prince Yanying with support of General Zhongzong and the Prince Guo. But loyal court official traced the Imperial lineage back a distant ancestor to a commoner named Wu Song and proclaimed himself as Prince Guo of Wu while claiming ancestry through his mother from Lu Yuan's family to the ancient Wu dynasty. He proclaimed himself the beginning of the Chou dynasty, establishing the Chou Empire.

The Chou dynasty took power and led the Empire to new heights of glory, especially the expansion of trade with southern kesh by sea that was established in 1167 CE with South Kesh. This would eventually become vital region for the Empire. By 1237 CE the Zhou dynasty had taken power and led the Empire into a new period of growth and expansion followed by a period stagnation before it began to fragment.

Eastern Zhou and seven states era

By the 1500s the state of Qingcheng which was part of the Zhou empire, there was local Xu nobles in the Zhou court. The nobles of the south coast, with merchants and some independentist groups, were sick of the Zhou supremacy, staged an uprising defeated the imperial army in the actual state of Zhonghe, and then succeed to push towards the north. While the rebel Xu army was going further in the north, more local noble rallied the army with their troops, growing more and more stronger. A last battle happened on the river Minjiang, both sides suffered many losses, but the battle ended as a Xu victory. This loss was deeply humiliating for the Zhou dynasty which was forced to set free the Xu kingdom, but refused to give all the claimed territories. This defeat made the Zhou dynasty weaker against his opponents inside Kodeshia and it was challenged by the rising Lu, Yan factions in the north and south. The Empire also began to experience religious conflicts in this period.

By 1531 the Yan dynasty faced the Zhou dynasty in open rebelion. After a short but brutal war the Zhou already weaken fell and was not able to recover to the same extent the remaining Zhou factions fled east to establish the Eastern Zhou but it was never as powerful. The Empire, weakened by endless civil wars, fell into a period of disorder in which several powerful city states grew stronger. While the Eastern Zhou sought to turn things around their authority was lost as Xu kingdom in the territory of Qingcheng declared total independence with all their claimed territories. Reforms were made to restore the glory to the Empire but the damage was done, the Empire never was able to recover to its former glory, The Northern Yan state, Southern Lu, Tan state and Ruo, Ba, Sui and eventual Cao states all battled for power within what was once the Zhou Empire. The overseas vassal kingdoms broke away during this period as most of the Zhou fleet was in ruin or turned to piracy. The states in the territory of Nanwen were the first to breakaway with loss of the Qingcheng territory any attempt to control that land was gone. The Heibanese vassal state of Gangyou was overthrown with the Zhouguo state and the South Kesh vassal kingdoms broke away.

Late imperial

Empress Tianchang was enthroned as Empress in 1839 and oversaw several important reforms.

This period of chaos was ended with the stability of the short-lived Cao and Zhao states that managed to reunify the territory of Kodeshia before the Liang dynasty re-established order. But the declining Zhao Empire had to face the rising threats from its neighbours, with the foundation of Selengeria in 1577 following the defeat of the Zhu Kingdom along with encroaching Artemian Imperialism as colonial forces from Artemia arrived on the continent of Kesh. By 1655 the Zhao Empire came into direct conflict with Tiperyn forces around the Yuhai Islands. The war was a total defeat with the badly overstretched, undermanned, underfunded and uncoordinated naval forces of Zhao Empire no match for the powerful Tiperyn fleet of galleons and their well-trained musket forces. During this era the navy was not a separate entity and proved largely inadequate against pirate raids and the Tiperyn forces.

The islands were taken and renamed The Jade Islands and were developed into major regional commercial centres for Tiperyn. The loss of the Yuhai Islands to Tiperyn forces in 1655 dealt a deep humiliation to the declining Zhao Empire, now known to foreigners as the Empire of Kodeshia. This allowed the Liang dynasty under Empress Tianshi to emerge as a major threat to the Zhao. After uniting various factions, Tianshi declared the new Liang Dynasty in 1681 CE. As a strong and capable leader, Tianshi enacted reforms to modernize the empire and restore prestige, reorganizing the administration, improving taxation, promoting education and culture, and expanding the military. However, the decades of civil war between the Zhao and Liang from (1665-1730 CE) caused enormous bloodshed, with as many as 15 million lives lost. The Liang conquest, while establishing order after chaos, came at a devastating cost. Some historians argue that Tianshi's actions were necessary to unite the country and prevent further chaos. Others argue that her methods were too brutal and that she should be held accountable for the deaths of so many people. Ultimately, Tianshi’s legacy is remarkable, as she is widely regarded as the founder and one of the greatest ruler of the Liang Dynasty, which remains in power to this day. She was a visionary and a reformer who modernized the empire and restored its prestige. She also brought stability and peace to Kodeshia after a long and chaotic civil war. She is celebrated as a national hero and a model of leadership by many people. Her rule is seen as a golden age in Kodeshi history, as it marked a new era of prosperity and imperial revival.

Upon ascending to the throne in 1715 CE, Empress Yaokang continued the vigorous reform policies initiated by her mother, Empress Tianshi, aimed at strengthening the new Liang Dynasty. During her 30-year reign until 1745 CE, Yaokang focused on developing the empire's economy and infrastructure to support the Liang's imperial ambitions. She oversaw the construction of an extensive network of roads and highways to connect the provinces to the capital and facilitate trade. Canals were built to irrigate farmlands and transport grain and other goods. Yaokang also commissioned the building of bridges, dams, harbors and other public works projects to improve transportation and commerce.

To support this infrastructure development, Yaokang reformed the taxation system to increase state revenues. She established granaries and warehouses to store grain as a hedge against famine. Her economic policies promoted urban growth and the rise of a merchant class engaged in manufacturing and trade.

As a cultured empress, Yaokang also emerged as a patron of traditional Kodeshi arts and sciences. The imperial court under her rule hosted many painters, poets, scholars and artisans. Yaokang sponsored scholarly academies and research into topics such as astronomy, medicine, and mathematics. Her respect for education and desire to promote culture and knowledge among the elite has led some historians to describe her reign as a golden age.

Yaokang thus left her own mark through her economic development programs and patronage of the arts. She sustained the prosperity and stability of the Liang Empire during her rule, further solidifying the dynasty's hold on power. When Yaokang died in 1746 CE, she was succeeded by her daughter Empress Dengwu, who inherited a prosperous and stable empire. Dengwu maintained peace and order, suppressing any internal rebellions or external invasions that threatened the harmony of the realm. She also enacted policies aimed at promoting the welfare and happiness of her subjects, reducing taxes, raising salaries for officials, and distributing land to improve the lives of the poor and sick.

As a devout follower of Xuanism, Dengwu supported the restoration and construction of many temples and the performance of rituals. Over the course of her 42-year reign until 1788 CE, she oversaw a revival of Xuanist practice and successfully established Shangxuan Xuanism as the official state religion of the Empire. This entrenched Xuanism within Kodeshi culture and society in a way that endured long after Dengwu's rule.

Emperor Shoushou, who was the first male ruler of the Liang Dynasty, took power after the death of his mother Empress Dengwu in 1788 CE. He followed a conservative, pragmatic approach to governance that sought to maintain stability and order. However, his reign coincided with major challenges like the Great Plague pandemic that devastated populations across Kesh and beyond in 1789. Shoushou attempted some reform efforts, such as supporting the Transformation Movement led by reformer Wei Lujiong, but these failed to gain traction after Wei's death.

While he expanded imperial influence through conquests of neighboring states and tributary relations, the Liang Empire began to stagnate under Shoushou's rule. Widespread corruption and falling economic growth characterized this period, as Kodeshia fell behind its neighbors and Artemian colonial powers in adopting modern technologies and industrialization. The energetic modernization drives underway in nations like the Fu Gwok Movement in Bakfong, and similar within Akiteiwa, and the rising power of Selengeria stood in stark contrast to the conservatism and gradual decline of the Liang Empire. Despite Shoushou's 50-year reign until 1839 CE, historians mark his rule as ushering in an era of societal and technological stagnation that left the empire vulnerable in a rapidly changing world.

Empress Tianchang succeeded her father Emperor Shoushou in 1839 CE and brought an end to the declining favor of the imperial court, overseeing considerable modernization during her 46-year reign until 1886 CE. She introduced many innovations and reforms, such as railways, steamships, telegraphs, and state banks, schools, and hospitals. She oversaw the establishment of the Imperial Kodeshi Army in 1868 followed by the Imperial Kodeshi Navy in 1875. She also encouraged trade and commerce with other nations, especially towards the continent of Artemia with nations such as Mero-Curgovina and the Goetic Empire.

Despite her many achievements, Tianchang's ambitious reform plans were unfinished when she died in 1886 CE. Her son and heir, Emperor Zhaodazu, took power at age 23 and faced opposition from conservative anti-reform aristocrats. However, the Aki-Selengerian War of 1870 highlighted the urgent need to modernise Kodeshia's military which had fallen behind rivals and Kodeshi influence in Selengeria would never recover from the loss to Akiteiwa power in the conflict. Tianchang's efforts to build a modern army and navy were thus vindicated. With support from his mother's loyal officials, Zhaodazu crushed opposition factions, allowing him to continue Tianchang's reforms. Further impetus came from Akiteiwa's defeats in the Second Aki-Selengerian War around the turn of the century. Zhaodazu promoted Artemian education and technology, forging economic ties with the Goetic Empire and Mero-Curgovina to drive industrialisation, especially in the military, shipping and railway sectors.

Selengeria's new alliance with Tiperyn and the crushing defeat suffered by Akiteiwa led to growing ties between Akiteiwa and Kodeshia, as they sought to contain Selengerian and Tiperyn influence in the region. On January 12, 1919, Kodeshia formalised an alliance with the Akiteiwa, bonding over their shared goals of reclaiming lost territory and addressing the perceived threat posed by Selengeria and Tiperyn.

Though officially neutral, Kodeshia had been closely observing the global Grand Campaigns since 1915. With the overwhelming victories of Goetic forces in the field and seeing Tiperyn join the conflict, Kodeshia and Akiteiwa declared war on Tiperyn and its allies. Within hours, Kodeshia assembled its newly developed Weidalu Fleet, combining the Northern and Southern fleets. Led by Admiral Shen Hanzhi, the numerically superior Kodeshi forces swiftly sailed to surround and lay siege to the Tiperyn controlled Yuhai Islands. The smaller islands fell with little resistance, but the main island required a three-month siege and sustained naval bombardment before Tiperyn colonial forces were overwhelmed by Kodeshi troops. The successful campaign sparked widespread celebration in Kodeshia, making Admiral Shen a national hero. Kodeshi vessels also aided Akiteiwa in liberating the Komishima Islands from Tiperyn.

Kodeshia's seizure of the Yuhai Islands drew Selengeria into the war on the side of its Tiperyn allies, opening an eastern front against Kodeshia. Emperor Zhaodazu rapidly mobilized forces as Akiteiwa came to Kodeshia's aid, sending expeditionary troops and conducting offensives along Selengeria's northern border. This new front quickly became the second largest theatre of the war, forcing Kodeshi commanders into a defensive posture.

Field Marshal Yuan Guozhang proposed an ambitious pincer operation to encircle the Selengerian salient bulging into Kodeshi territory before enemy forces could solidify defensive works. He hoped a swift blow could knock Selengeria out of the war. The plan called for a diversionary attack by the understrength 6th and 7th Armies, while the main force of the 2nd, 3rd and 5th Armies would attack from the northeast to catch Selengerian units by surprise. Meanwhile, the 1st and 9th Armies would advance from the southeast to capture the strategic Shimao River and complete the encirclement. Initial stages went well, catching Selengerian forces off guard. But the northern prong soon bogged down after modest 10 km gains due to heavy casualties, exhaustion, and supply issues, stalling the offensive.

By now the heavy casualties and exhaustion combined with risk of becoming overstretched meant the forces had to stop and regroup. There were also major supply problems, the armies were moving slowly and only the lack of any appreciable amount of road or rail lines limited supplies. As the monsoon weather set in all offensive operations became impossible as the ground became so muddy by 1921 the newly opened Eastern front had quickly become a stalemate. By 1923 after the death of the Emperor Zhaodazu, new plans for a major eastern front offensive were proposed by General Tang Xueliang it would become to be known as the Tang Offensive. The offensive was a serious defeat for the Selengerian forces, which was forced out of its first position by the Imperial Kodeshi 5th Army. The first day on the offensive was, in terms of casualties, also the worst day in the history of the Kodeshi army, which suffered over 100,000 casualties. It became tremendously costly for the Imperial army, and after the offensive, its forces were seriously depleted and the public will for the war was at an all-time low.

Unrest from the soldiers and public and heavy resentment towards the new Emperor Qinghuiguo taking over from his recently departed father the well-loved Emperor Zhaodazu, this in combination with foreign support for rebels and the chaos and sporadic communist uprisings in Alva spilling over into north and northeast Kodeshia leading to revolts against the Emperor over dissatisfaction with the war effort and rationing and shortages, as well as the continued assistance to the rebels. After the destruction of the militias and before the armistice with Selengeria the Kodeshi armies had suffered major losses in men and materiel. after a long, protracted, and deadly campaign, Kodeshia and forces from foreign expeditionary forces defeated the militias and put an end to military and civil disputes but at a heavy cost to Emperor Qinghuiguo's personal image and respect for the government.

Kodeshi Civil War (1927-1932)

Imperial cavalry forces retreating to the countryside, 1930

The poor handling drew widespread discontent and condemnation of the monarchies handling of the situation. In response to the public discontent and revolts a series of reformist mass movements forced the Emperor to sign the first Kodeshi Constitution, creating a constitutional monarchy ending thousands of years of absolute monarchy. This allowing the public to voice its concerns via a democratic parliament. The new government, instantly became deadlocked between faction groups much to the frustration of the Emperor.

By this stage Kodeshia sought to end the hostilities and with its ally Bakfong they reached an armistice with Selengeria, while terms of peace could be conducted. Kodeshi troops remained on the frontline positions during this stage which proved extremely costly measure for the already heavily indebted empire. But the efforts would prove successful by 1926 treaty was signed between the Empire of Kodeshia and representatives of Selengeria. The treaty was signed after two months of negotiations. The treaty was agreed upon by the Selengerians to stop the further invasion. According to the treaty, Selengeria ceded hegemony over the all its border provinces to Kodeshia; they were meant to become Kodeshi tributary states under Kodeshia Empire. A separate peace with Tiperyn was conducted which was agreed to keep its captured territories for reparations for losses to its empire. This conflict dismantled the Imperial autocracy and led to the rise of military rule.

The Liang Dyansty collapsed as the Emperor Qinghuiguo and the old regime were replaced by members of the Imperial parliament who assumed control of the country, forming the a Republican Government which was heavily dominated by factional interests. As the situation deteriorated the Emperor attempted to flee to Bakfong. However Guo Guotai's forces captured and secure the Emperor before this could happen. Although Guo Guotai paid nominal allegiance to Emperor Qinghuiguo, he was actually the de facto head of the central government. He skilfully used Emperor Qinghuiguo to bolster his legitimacy when he attacked and eliminated rivals in his quest to reunify the Kodeshi Empire under the central government's rule. As the chaos and factional fighting took hold the Military in alliance with Republicans, Nationalists, Democrats and Religious groups mostly fell into line with Guo Guotai and the Emperor's new rule taking power establishing the Kodeshi State, but the civil war also led to the creation of the a number of warlord breakaway self-declared nations most notably Hydar State under Feriuz Hydar. These uneasy new fragmented borders between Selengeria and Kodeshia both ravaged by civil war and now contending with breakaway regions would lead to growing animosity and future conflict between both sides.

Kodeshi State (1932-1964)

Guo Guotai, the leader of Kodeshia from 1932 to 1964.

The Kodeshi State, also known as the Guoist regime, despite the Imperial system remaining was a period of Kodeshi history when Guo Guotai, a former admiral and rebel leader, ruled Kodeshia as a dictator with the title of Grand Marshal (大元帅). He maintained a nominal constitutional monarchy with the Emperor as the ceremonial figurehead, but he never attempted to usurp the throne, following a strict personal code until his death. He restored economic prosperity and ended mass unemployment by spending heavily on the military, while suppressing labor unions and strikes. He also merged all parties that supported his side in the Civil War into the National Unity Party (民族團結黨), creating a single-party regime that enjoyed enormous popularity, with only minor and unsuccessful resistance among the Kodeshi population. Between 1930 and 1940, he undertook a radical program of industrialization and consolidated his near-absolute control over Kodeshi society.

The Kodeshi regime viewed the rise of the Ündserkheg, a fascist movement led by Khiyat Süüdriin, in Selengeria with great alarm, as Süüdriin vowed to reclaim the southern plains. Kodeshia rejected this claim, arguing that 1926 Treaty as the rightful demarcation of the border, however Selengerian side rejected these claims saying the treaty was void because the previous states that signed it no longer existed. Süüdriin insisted that the pre-Grand Campaigns borders should be respected. But this would require defining the status of the various disputed border region that existed on both sides. The issue of the border particularly the southern plains would come to a head with both sides agreeing to an international backed referendum on statehood for the area. Both sides lobbied hard for their choices and the results ultimately saw victory for Selengeria although there was widespread claims of vote rigging, intimidation and fraud. Kodeshia declared the results illegitimate, citing Ündserkheg volunteer paramilitary units entering the region as well. The dispute over the border escalated into a war, when Selengeria launched a surprise attack on Kodeshia on 27 July 1955, in alliance with HCCK and Alva. The main objectives of the invasion were to capture Songhari, the Kodeshi capital, and secure the southern plains and other strategic locations in Kodeshia. Suudriin's objectives were to eliminate Kodeshia as a military power, exterminate its native people, and restore the lost territories from the Grand Campaigns and guarantee access to the strategic resources within the southern plains region needed to defeat Selengeria's remaining rivals.The war was a brutal and bloody conflict, which involved land, sea, and air battles, as well as the use of nuclear weapons by Tiperyn. The war ended with an armistice agreement on 27 November 1959, which established a new line of control and a demilitarized zone between Kodeshia and Selengeria. The war left Kodeshia devastated, with millions of casualties, widespread destruction, and social upheaval. The war also led to the emergence of new alliances and rivalries in Kesh, as well as the beginning of the nuclear age.

The war revealed the flaws and failures of Guo Guotai's dictatorship, which lost its support and legitimacy among the people. Compounding this issue was a succession crisis beginning in 16 April 1964 when Emperor Qinghuiguo died at the age of 75. The death of Emperor Qinghuiguo provoked a massive public outcry and anger at Guo Guotai, leading to the 1964 Incident. Guo Guotai tried to delay the succession process and declared a national mourning period, fearing that the next emperor would overthrow his regime. However, Princess Xuanyi, Emperor Qinghuiguo's daughter, claimed the throne as Empress Xuanyi on 16 April 1964 and launched a coup d'état to restore the monarchy as the highest power in Kodeshia. This was known as the Xuanyi Restoration. Guo Guotai's health deteriorated rapidly in his final months, as he became paranoid, angry, and fearful. He suspected that Selengerian and Tiperyn agents were spying on him and plotting to kill him. He also mistreated his staff and abused his authority. On 19 June 1964, Guo Guotai suffered a stroke and died shortly after. His death was widely reported as a murder, with various theories and suspects. Some claimed that his wine was poisoned by his security aide, who was secretly working for the royalist factions. Others claimed that Selengerian or Tiperyn spies assassinated him and disposed of his body. However, no conclusive evidence has ever been found to support these claims. Tiperyn officials later claimed that Guo Guotai died of natural causes, with only a small amount of blood left in his body.

Empire of Kodeshia (since 1964)

In 1964, The new Empress Xuanyi was restored as Emperor of Kodeshia, with full support from Bakfong and Alva. It was hoped that the restoration of the imperial system would give stability and open a pathway towards democracy. But several resistance movements that ranged from Hydari loyalist to communist ideologies. These militant resistance groups used the favourable Kodeshi landscape for guerrilla operations as Imperial forces and their allies were in control only of the main cities, towns and connecting roads, leaving the mountainous countryside and dense rain forests to the resistance. But Empress Xuanyi was a popular and charismatic leader, and the renewed celebration and joy of the Imperial restoration did much to improve the public mood which following the nuclear bombing and loss of territory during the Great Kesh War. She was also a skilled diplomat, who improved Kodeshia’s relations, securing economic aid following the destruction of war and normalising ties with many former enemies such as Tiperyn. The stability established following the restoration was shaken on 5 July 1968 by the assassination of Empress Xuanyi just four years into her reign by a radical group opposed to her reforms, the official Kodeshi government investigation claims were Selengerian agents. [citation needed]

Mengqi succeeded to the thrones in 1968 following the death of Empress Xuanyi. In recent years, reconstruction efforts have progressed and after the insurgency in the northwest was defeated generally considered to be the end of major fighting since 1987. This has led to some political stability through a limited multiparty democracy under a semi-constitutional monarchy. Emperor Mengqi has overseen the rapid rebound and rise of the economy and emergence of regional unity with the foundation of Kesh-Tethys Economic Cooperation regional inter government organisation of which Kodeshia was a founding member and plays a leading role. Despite long standing tensions with Selengeria relations have seen a reduction in clashes that followed the end of the Great Kesh War and beginning of the insurgency.

Government

Kodeshia's political system combines elements of an absolute monarchy with vetted democracy.

The political system of the Empire of Kodeshia takes place within the framework of the nation's constitution of 1964. The government is a constitutional monarchy operated as a parliamentary representative democracy.

There are two major political groups that usually form a government, federally and in the provinces: the United Progressive Front (UPF) and the National Conservative Alliance (NCA). Within Kodeshian political culture, the NCA is considered centre-right and the UPF is considered centre-left. Independent members and several minor parties have achieved some limited representation in Kodeshi National Representative Assembly. Officially a multiparty democracy, in reality "the country remains a one-party state dominated by the Kodeshi National Conservative Alliance and Grand Chancellor Zhao Changfu, since 1995. Kodeshia's government has been described by the some commentators, as a "relatively authoritarian coalition via a superficial democracy". Since crackdowns on political dissent and free press, Kodeshia has been described as a de facto one-party state. But the state vehemently denies and suppresses these claims.

Emperor

The Emperor is responsible for delineation and supervision of the policies of the Empire of Kodeshia. The Kodeshi Grand Chancellor has limited power compared to the Emperor. The current longtime Emperor, Mengqi, has been issuing decrees and making the final decisions on the economy, environment, foreign policy, education, national plannings, and everything else in the country. Mengqi also outlines elections guidelines and urges for the transparency, and has fired and reinstated cabinet appointments by the Grand Chancellor. Key ministers are selected with the Emperor Mengqi's agreement and he has the ultimate say on Kodeshia's foreign policy. The Grand Chancellor-elect is required to gain the Emperor Mengqi's official approval before being sworn in before the National Representative Assembly. Through this process, the Leader agrees to the outcome of the election of the Grand Chancellor. The Emperor is directly involved in ministerial appointments for Defence, Intelligence and Foreign Affairs, as well as other top ministries after submission of candidates from the Grand Chancellor. Kodeshia's regional policy is directly controlled by the office of the Emperor alongside the Ministry of Foreign Affairs'. The budget bill for every year, as well as withdrawing money from the National Development Fund of Kodeshia, require Emperor's express approval and permission. The Emperor can and does order laws to be amended.

The Emperor is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, controls the military intelligence and security operations, and has sole power to declare war or peace. The heads of the judiciary, the state radio and television networks, the commanders of the police and military forces, and six of the twelve members of the Imperial Council are directly appointed by the Emperor.

The Imperial Council

The Imperial Council is the upper house of the bicameral Imperial parliament of Kodeshia. It consists of 300 members who are either hereditary, appointed, or elected. The Imperial Council has the power to review and amend bills passed by the National Representative Assembly (lower house), initiate legislation on matters concerning the imperial family, religion, defence, foreign affairs, and constitutional amendments, and advise the Emperor on important national issues. The Imperial Council is presided over by the Grand Secretary, who is appointed by the Emperor from among the council. The current Grand Secretary is Tuo Fuzhou.

The Imperial Council includes 30 hereditary members who belong to the imperial family or the nobility, 125 appointed members who are distinguished politicians and scientists nominated by the Emperor in consultation with the Advisory Bodies, and 145 elected members who are either nobles or representatives from the administrative divisions. The elected members are divided into five political parties: National Conservative Alliance, United Progressive Front, Kodeshi Liberty Party, Kodeshi Anti-Poverty Party, and United People of Kodeshia.

The Imperial Council can veto any bill within 15 days of its passage by the National Representative Assembly if it finds it to be in violation of Xuanist principles or incompatible with the Constitution. The veto can be overridden by a supermajority vote of the National Representative Assembly. The Imperial Council also has the power to supervise elections to ensure fairness and transparency and approves or disqualifies candidates seeking to run in local, parliamentary, or grand chancellery elections based on their moral character and adherence to Xuanist values. However, the Emperor can appoint or dismiss any member of the council at his discretion and can veto any decision made by the council or approve any candidate without their consent.

Grand Chancellor

The National Legislature of Kodeshia in Songhari.

After the Emperor, the Constitution defines the Grand Chancellor of Kodeshia as the highest state authority. However, the Grand Chancellor is still required to gain the Emperor's official approval before being sworn in before the National Representative Assembly. The head of state of Kodeshia is the Grand Chancellor of the nation, who is elected by popular vote for a five-year term. Although their executive powers are somewhat limited, the Grand Chancellor does have veto power over government's legislation. Following elections, the Grand Chancellor appoints the leader of the majority party or majority coalition as the Imperial Secretary of the Cabinet of Kodeshia. As head of government, the Imperial Secretary presides over the cabinet. Zhao Changfu is the current Grand Chancellor and Liao Dengjie is the Imperial Secretary of the Cabinet of Kodeshia.

Legislature

The legislature of Kodeshia, known as the National Representative Assembly, is a unicameral body comprising 550 members elected by preferential voting for five-year terms, fifteen representatives from each province. It drafts legislation, ratifies international treaties, and approves the national budget. All parliamentary candidates and all legislation from the assembly must be approved by the Imperial Council. Voting is compulsory for all enrolled citizens 20 years and over in every jurisdiction as is enrolment.

Law

The Emperor appoints the head of the country's judiciary, who in turn appoints the head of the Supreme Court and the chief public prosecutor. There are several types of courts, including public courts that deal with civil and criminal cases, and imperial courts which deal with certain categories of offences, such as crimes against national security. The decisions of the imperial courts are final and cannot be appealed.

Administrative divisions

Kodeshia has several levels of subdivisions. The first level is that of the provinces, which are 21 of these subnational divisions with self-governing bodies led by elected leaders and legislative bodies with elected members. In addition to the provinces, there are also four special subnational divisions with different degrees of autonomy and authority: the Special Capital Region of Songhari, which is the seat of the central government and has a special status in the constitution; the Special municipalities of Chenghai and Jianghua, which are directly administered by the central government and have a higher level of urbanization and economic development; and the Special Autonomous Province of Yuhai, which enjoys more legislative rights than regular provinces. The duties of local governments include social services, education, urban planning, public construction, water management, environmental protection, transport, public safety, and more. The 21 normal provinces are — Anbei, Xiabei, Zhonglin, Nanfeng, Yucheng, Shixia, Dazhong, Tianlin, Zhongyuan, Yueshan, Guangshui, Yanhe, Linshan, Xuemai, Changbei, Beihai, Beifu, Guangshen, Guanggu, Xiguan, and Hongfu.

The second level is that of the special municipalities, counties, and cities. led by regents and mayors respectively and a legislature. The third level is that of the districts, and the fourth is of the villages. Special municipalities and cities are further divided into districts for local administration. Counties are further divided into townships and county-administered cities which have elected mayors and councils, and share duties with the county. Some divisions are indigenous divisions which have different degrees of autonomy to standard ones. In addition, districts, cities and townships are further divided into villages and neighbourhoods.

The village is the lowest level of government administration. It is divided into several community groups which are further divided into neighbourhood groups. The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life and handles matters of a village or neighbourhood through an elected village chief.


Administrative Number Provinces (省) Guoyu Guoyu Hanyu Pinyin Provincial Language(s) Provincial Capital Area (km2) Population
(2019)
% of Population Population density (pop/km2)
1 Anbei 岸北省 Ànběi shěng Guoyu Bohai 25,331 km2 (9,780 sq mi) 7,602,601 2.30% 291.287/km2 (754.43/sq mi)
2 Xiabei 下北省 Xiàběi shěng Guoyu Fuyang 43,479 km2 (16,787 sq mi) 8,011,431 2.42% 178.827/km2 (463.16/sq mi)
3 Zhonglin 中林省 Zhōng lín shěng Guoyu Malipo 31,421 km2 (12,132 sq mi) 6,953,948 2.10% 214.794/km2 (556.31/sq mi)
4 Nanfeng 南风省 Nán fēng shěng Guoyu Tongchuan 58,328 km2 (22,521 sq mi) 16,324,990 4.93% 271.630/km2 (703.52/sq mi)
5 Yucheng 玉城省 Yùchéng shěng Guoyu Chengyue 201,400 km2 (77,800 sq mi) 69,049,159 20.86% 344.514/km2 (892.29/sq mi)
6 Shixia 石峡省 Shí xiá shěng Guoyu Aodi 26,981 km2 (10,417 sq mi) 8,204,631 2.48% 295.131/km2 (764.39/sq mi)
7 Dazhong 大中省 Dàzhōng shěng Guoyu Jiutai 176,708 km2 (68,227 sq mi) 71,064,493 21.47% 390.303/km2 (1,010.88/sq mi)
8 Tianlin 天林省 Tiānlín shěng Guoyu Wujin 149,194 km2 (57,604 sq mi) 29,586,474 8.94% 192.464/km2 (498.48/sq mi)
9 Zhongyuan 中原省 Zhōngyuán shěng Guoyu Shangyu 185,054 km2 (71,450 sq mi) 100,969,591 30.50% 529.538/km2 (1,371.50/sq mi)
10 Yueshan 岳山省 Yuèshān shěng Guoyu, Yi Ba'an 174,209 km2 (67,262 sq mi) 38,345,501 11.58% 213.624/km2 (553.28/sq mi)
11 Guangshui 广水省 Guǎngshuǐ shěng Guoyu Maojia 123,814 km2 (47,805 sq mi) 37,153,994 11.22% 291.233/km2 (754.29/sq mi)
12 Yanhe 岩河省 Yánhé shěng Guoyu Nankang 53,524 km2 (20,666 sq mi) 10,519,407 3.18% 190.742/km2 (494.02/sq mi)
13 Linshan 林山省 Línshān shěng Guoyu Yanzhou 61,847 km2 (23,879 sq mi) 11,524,859 3.48% 180.853/km2 (468.41/sq mi)
14 Xuemai 雪脉省 Xuěmài shěng Guoyu De'an 46,925 km2 (18,118 sq mi) 6,728,199 2.03% 139.156/km2 (360.41/sq mi)
15 Changbei 长北省 Zhǎngběi shěng Guoyu Xianchun 99,721 km2 (38,502 sq mi) 14,937,570 4.51% 145.378/km2 (376.53/sq mi)
16 Beihai 北海省 Běihǎi shěng Guoyu Jiankang 59,008 km2 (22,783 sq mi) 8,569,862 2.59% 140.952/km2 (365.06/sq mi)
17 Beifu 北福省 Běifú shěng Guoyu Boshan 81,209 km2 (31,355 sq mi) 5,820,999 1.76% 69.567/km2 (180.18/sq mi)
18 Guangshen 广山省 Guǎngshān shěng Guoyu Xijin 147,956 km2 (57,126 sq mi) 10,273,205 3.10% 67.387/km2 (174.53/sq mi)
19 Guanggu 广谷省 Guǎnggǔ shěng Guoyu Hezhong 133,932 km2 (51,711 sq mi) 5,912,619 1.79% 42.845/km2 (110.97/sq mi)
20 Xiguan 西关省 Xīguān shěng Guoyu Yuhang 38,966 km2 (15,045 sq mi) 2,454,072 0.74% 61.123/km2 (158.31/sq mi)
21 Hongfu 洪福省 Hóngfú shěng Guoyu Dafeng 23,656 km2 (9,134 sq mi) 3,659,540 1.11% 150.135/km2 (388.85/sq mi)
22 Yuhai 玉海特別自治省 Yù hǎi tèbié zìzhì shěng Guoyu, Anglic Zhuhai 2,184 km2 (843 sq mi) 697,028 0.21% 309.790/km2 (802.35/sq mi)
23 Chenghai 澄海特別市 Chénghǎi tèbié shì Guoyu Chenghai 4,707 km2 (1,817 sq mi) 11,587,572 3.50% 2,389.190/km2 (6,187.97/sq mi)
24 Jianghua 江化特別市 Jiāng huà tèbié shì Guoyu Jianghua 2,887 km2 (1,115 sq mi) 8,701,948 2.63% 2,925.025/km2 (7,575.78/sq mi)
25 Songhari 宋奤氜特別首都區 Sònghǎyáng tèbié shǒudū qū Guoyu Songhari 3,348 km2 (1,293 sq mi) 5,358,381 1.62% 1,553.154/km2 (4,022.65/sq mi)
Total: 1,948,907 km2 (752,477 sq mi) 500,012,074 100% 256.6/km2 (665/sq mi)

Foreign relations

The Kodeshi–Selengerian Demilitarized Zone (KSDZ) remains one of the biggest environmental issues in Kodeshia.

The foreign relations of Kodeshia are handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs under Zhou Wenhua and her deputy Dai Jiechi. Kodeshia participates fully in international and regional organisations it is a member of the Unaligned Nations Consortium and an observer of the Pan-Artemian Coalition. Kodeshia has developed increasingly close ties with Alva, Bakfong, Akiteiwa, Qingcheng, and Hwangchu, whose foreign and economic ministers hold annual meetings.

Kodeshia has established diplomatic relations with numerous countries; the government reports many embassies in the country including many of its neighbours including Alva, Bakfong, Akiteiwa, Qingcheng, and Hwangchu. As a result of its international relations, various charitable organisations have assisted with social, economic, and civil infrastructure needs.

While the violent ruptures of the 1960s and 1980s have passed, several border disputes between Kodeshia and its neighbours persist. Kodeshia and Selengeria have had difficult relations since ancient times, but also significant cultural exchange, with Selengeria acting as the gateway between Kodeshia and Akiteiwa. Contemporary perceptions of Selengeria are still largely defined by the Great Kesh War, with longstanding animosity following the conflict. Selengeria and Kodeshia are still technically at war (having never signed a peace treaty after the Great Kesh War) and share the world's most heavily fortified border. The war remains the major point of contention between Kodeshia and Selengeria; many border disputes over claimed territories between both sides remain. Most of the territory belongs to Kodeshia, but a combination of Selengeria disrespecting international law, Selengerian troop build up in the area have left the situation unsettled since the end of the Great Kesh War.

Due partly to difficulties in relations with its geopolitical rival Selengeria, Kodeshia maintains close political relations with many of its neighbours who remain a focal point in Kodeshia's foreign policy. Kodeshia's has close economic and military relations with Akiteiwa, Bakfong, Hwangchu, HCCK, and Qingcheng; these form part of collection of bilateral and trilateral security alliances that acts as the cornerstone of the nation's foreign policy. Qingcheng and HCCK represent part of the Sanqing Security Alliance (三清安全联盟; Sānqīng ānquán liánméng; SAL), Kodeshia has a special relationship with Akiteiwa underpined by the bilateral security alliances with Akiteiwa with Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security Between the Akiteiwa and Kodeshia (阿基蒂帝国和山河间國相互合作与安全条约; Ājīdì dìguó hé Shānhéjiān guó xiānghù hézuò yǔ ānquán tiáoyuē; AKKO Treaty) since the Great Kesh War. Akiteiwa is a major market for Kodeshi exports and the primary source of Kodeshi imports, and is committed to defending the country in the event of Selengerian military aggression, having joint military basing agreements with Kodeshia for that purpose. Both Akiteiwa and Kodeshia share ties on defence with shared joint military projects.

The atomic bombing of Wujin in 1959, as well concerns over sovereignty following the Great Kesh War, convinced Kodeshia to develop nuclear weapons. It worked with Akiteiwa combining their nuclear weapons programs. Kodeshia conducted its first nuclear weapons test in 1968. Despite criticism and concern over the Kodeshia's nuclear program raised particularly by Selengeria and Tiperyn. However Kodeshia assures its neighbours that it's nuclear weapons are purely defensive and it maintains a "no first use" nuclear policy. As part of the nations minimum nuclear deterrence doctrine it is developing a nuclear triad capability. This began with the nations first ballistic submarine a conventional diesel type which was laid down in 1972 and commissioned in 1977 and submarine-launched ballistic missile were first successfully tested in 1974. This conventional fleet of ballistic submarines is due to be replaced with the new class of four nuclear powered ballistic submarines of the Hujing-class The current nuclear force consists of six ballistic Saijing-class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles. In addition to the submarine fleet, it is estimated that Kodeshia has about number of land based air-to-ground missiles with nuclear warheads along with a complement of Kurogane/Dongfang H.50 strategic nuclear bombers and nuclear capable strike aircraft such as the Yu'an JH.29, Nanbin J.61 and Nanbin JH.58.

Kodeshia is under treaty obligation to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions and to take other steps to curb climate change. In 2022 the government of Kodeshia announced a target of emissions to be cut by roughly 50% by 2040. As a signatory to the Yenbai Convention a landmark international treaty on climate action. The Renewable Energy Clause which the Kodeshi government signed up to commits the nation to a to transition its economy towards zero emissions future something it has committed to as a signatory to the Renewable Energy Clause. Nuclear energy is seen as a pathway for Kodeshia to achieve these goals. Kodeshia has subsequently developed its nuclear technology and commerce and signed co-operation agreements involving civilian nuclear energy with Akiteiwa, HCCK, and Qingcheng. It is also seeking to work with international partners to work on renewable technologies. Kodeshia will be ustilising the Mother Nature Fund to aid the implementation of the measures outlined in the Mitigation and Adaptation Clauses to achieve the Yenbai Convention targets. Kodeshia is a founding member of Kesh-Tethys Economic Cooperation and signatory to the KTEC Visa Exemption Scheme, Unaligned Nations Consortium, and an observer member of Pan-Artemian Coalition. Kodeshia has been a humanitarian and development aid recipient since 1959 and recently, the country has expressed interest in becoming an aid donor.

Territorial disputes

Ever since end of the Grand Campaigns, disputes of control of the exact line of control and demarcation of the border territory between Selengeria and Kodeshia has been a major territorial dispute that has hindered relations between Selengeria and Kodeshia. The two nations fought a large scale conventional war over control of the region. The end of the war saw loss of control over the territory for Kodeshia during the armistice agreement but without a peace treaty in which the conflicts battle lines remain frozen. A state of war technically still exists between both countries with the Kodeshi–Selengerian Demilitarized Zone (KSDZ) with Selengeria remains the most heavily fortified border in the world. Kodeshia continues to maintain that the 1926 Treaty signed between the Empire of Kodeshia and Imperial Selengerian goverment is legal border. Selengeria claims it has never accepted that border, stating that since Imperial government was not independent when it signed the treaty. Since the 1970s, both nations have held informal diplomatic dialogues in order to ease military tensions. Despite this occasional border clashes and skirmishes remain common.

In addition to Selengeria, Kodeshia is also involved in other international territorial disputes. Including an undefined border with Alva over territorial claims and treaties made during the Great Kesh War however after a decade of talks and diplomatic dialogues agreements were reached over the border regions.

Military

Kodeshi Armed Forces. Clockwise from top: Imperial Kodeshi Army soldiers conducting a foot patrol during a joint training exercise, Imperial Kodeshi Army tanks during a training exercise, Imperial Kodeshi Air Force an Yu'an J.29 conducting a joint operation with the navy over the Tethys ocean. Imperial Kodeshi Navy conduct boat formation training.

The Imperial Kodeshi Army (IKA), Imperial Kodeshi Navy (IKN), Imperial Kodeshi Air Force (IKAF), and the Imperial Kodeshi Marines (IKM), and reserve forces collectively form the Imperial Armed Forces of Kodeshia (IAFK), under the command of the Ministry of Defence, presided over by the Minister of Defence and commanded by the the Imperial Armed Forces of Kodeshia Headquarters, which in turn is headed by the Chief of Defence Forces, currently General Wang Zhun. His Majesty the Emperor Mengqi is the Supreme Commander of the Imperial Armed Forces of Kodeshia (IAFK). It also incorporates various paramilitary forces.

As of 2018, the military comprised over one million active duty personnel. Many of these are concentrated near the heavily fortified disputed border with Selengeria known as the Kodeshi–Selengerian Demilitarized Zone (KSDZ). Additionally, there are over 3 million reservists, with the total number of reserve troops possibly being as high as 20 million.[6] Most Kodeshis are drafted into the military at the age of 18. They are subjected to varying lengths of active service depending on the duration of reserve training they choose. Following mandatory service, Kodeshi men join the reserve forces and usually do up to several weeks of reserve duty every year until their forties. Most women are exempt from reserve duty. Those who have completed three years or more of reserve training will be exempted entirely. The practice has long been criticized, as some media question its efficacy and value of conscript forces. Claiming that the current system is corrupt and inefficient, it has been argued that reservists are being used by officers as servants and laborers rather than soldiers. Defence Minister Cao Mingzhu has called for changes to the system, including extensive reforms to the promotion process and increased combat bonuses. She has also proposed a greater focus on a professional army over an all-volunteer one. In addition, she has ordered a review into conscription policy and reformation of the reserve force.[7]

They have the stated responsibility for the preservation of the integrity and national sovereignty of the national territory. In 2020, Kodeshia's military expenditure totalled approximately Hz931.1 trillion or $64 billion, equivalent to around 3.49% of its total GDP (nominal). Joint military exercises and war games have been held with Akiteiwa, Qingcheng, HCCK and Heiban.

Geography

Climatic zones in Kodeshia, based on the Köppen climate classification.

Kodeshia is located in North Eastern Kesh, bordered to the northwest by Qarai, to the north by Alva, to the northeast by Bakfong, to the east by Selengeria, to the southwest by Qingcheng, to the southeast by Akiteiwa and Shimakawa (across the Pearl Sea). The country lies along the Equator, lying between the latitudes 18°N and 9°S, and longitudes 63°E and 84°E.

The size of Kodeshia, 2,001,775 square kilometres (772,889 sq mi), it is the largest country in Kesh by area. Kodeshia's topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands. The landscapes vary significantly across its territory, as a result of its equatorial location, Kodeshia experiences high precipitation and has one of the highest frequency of thunderstorms in the world. The annual rainfall can total upwards of 2,000 millimetres (80 in) in some places, and the area sustains the Kodeshi rainforests, among the largest rain forests in the world. This massive expanse of lush jungle covers most of the vast, low-lying central basin of the river, which slopes toward the Tethys Ocean in the east. This area is surrounded by plateaus merging into savannas in the northeast, while the southwest is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges and in the far north the high, glaciated mountains major mountain ranges, most notably the Great Kesh Dividing range dominate the landscape. At 7,523 metres (24,681 ft), White Mountain is Kodeshi's highest peak, it lies on the Alvak-Bakfong-Kodeshi border, it hold great cultural siginficants to each nation. Huanghai Lake is the largest lake often called Jianghua Lake because Jianghua city is located on the shores this freshwater Lake in Guangshui province, with an area of 4,000 km2 (1,544 sq mi). Northern Hills which make up part of larger Qingchengese Mountains are found in the extreme eastern region of the nation.

The tropical climate also produced the Longbei River system which dominates the region topographically along with the rainforest it flows through, though they are not mutually exclusive. The river basin (meaning the Longbei River and all of its myriad tributaries) occupies nearly the entire country. The river and its tributaries form the backbone of Kodeshi economics and transportation and have done so for centuries. Major tributaries include the Yin, Taiyi, Changnan, Siba, Kayue, and Longshan. The sources of the Longbei are in the Great Kesh Mountains that flank the centre of the continent. The river also has the one of the largest flow and watersheds of any river in the world.

Climate

Kodeshia lies along the equator, and its climate tends to be relatively even year-round. Kodeshia has two seasons—a wet season and a dry season—with no extremes of summer or winter for much of the country. For most of Kodeshia, the dry season falls between May and October with the wet season between November and April. Kodeshia's climate is almost entirely tropical, dominated by the tropical rainforest climate while more cooling climate types do exist in mountainous regions that are 1,300 to 1,500 metres (4,300 to 4,900 feet) above sea level. The oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb) prevails in highland areas adjacent to rainforest climates, with reasonably uniform precipitation year-round. In highland areas near the tropical monsoon and tropical savanna climates, the subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb) is prevalent with a more pronounced dry season

The climate of Kodeshia comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical. Climate in south Kodeshia is generally hotter than north Kodeshia. According to the Köppen system, Kodeshi hosts six major climatic subtypes: alpine tundra, arid cold steppe, equatorial, tropical, oceanic and subtropical. The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the south, to the tropical savannas in central Kodeshia to the alpine tundra and glaciers in the north. Many regions have starkly different microclimates, making it one of the most climatically diverse countries in the world.

An equatorial climate characterises much of southeast and coastal Kodeshia. There is no real dry season, but there are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls. Temperatures average 25 °C (77 °F), with more significant temperature variation between night and day than between seasons. Over central Kodeshia rainfall is more seasonal, characteristic of a savanna climate. This region is as extensive as the Longbei basin but has a very different climate as it lies farther south at a higher altitude. In the interior northeast, seasonal rainfall is even more extreme.

Biodiversity

Southeastern Kesh Tiger, native to Kodeshia.
The Water Dragon is an iconic Kodeshi animal.
The Spotted kingfisher, is the national bird of Kodeshia.
The Okapi, native to Kodeshia.

Kodeshia is a megadiverse country, a term employed countries which display high biological diversity and contain many species exclusively indigenous, or endemic, to them. Kodeshia's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the rainforests, recognized as having among the greatest biological diversity in the world. Including many rare and endemic species, such as the carnivores Southeastern Kesh Tiger, Southeastern kesh lions, Snow leopards, Cloudy leopards, Southeastern kesh leopards, Civets, Southeastern kesh crocodiles, Southeastern kesh wolfs, Highland wolfs, Jungle foxs, Mountain foxs, Golden jackals, and Dholes, and Striped hyenas.

Herbivores like the Saolas, Southeastern kesh tapirs, Pangolins, Southeastern kesh otters, Southeastern kesh porcupines, Chevrotains, Muntjacs, Ruddy mongooses, Binturongs, Gaurs, Mithuns, Wild yaks, Chitals, Sangais, Barasinghas, Southeastern kesh stags, Sambars, Chousinghas, Highland musk deers, Chinkaras, Highland serows, Highland gorals, Highland takins, Markhors, Mountain ibexs, Nilgiri tahrs, Southeastern kesh onagers, Highland tahrs, Highland antelopes, Southeastern kesh boars, Pygmy hogs and Red pandas. Larger species like the Water Dragons, the Eastern forest elephant, the Okapi, Water buffalo and the Southeastern kesh rhinoceros.

The variety of types of birds is vast as well, notably the Kodeshi peacock, Kodeshi hornbill, Crimson horned pheasant, Golden pheasant, Blue kingfisher, Spotted kingfisher and include birds ranging from brightly colored parrots, toucans, and trogons to flamingos, ducks, vultures, hawks, eagles, owls, swans, and hummingbirds.

Kodeshia is also home to many dangerous animals including some of the most dangerous snakes, including the Kodeshi python, Yellow-bellied sea snake, King cobra, Kodeshi krait, Kodeshi sea snake, Black mamba, Kodeshi cobra, White-lipped pit viper Kodeshi spitting cobra. Dangerous spiders include the Kodeshi wandering spiders, Kodeshi recluse spider, Goliath birdeater spider and dangerous scorpions include the Deathstalker and the Kodeshi yellow scorpion.

The forests of Kodeshi can be divided into two main categories: monsoon forest and rainforest. Monsoon forest is dry at least three months a year, and is dominated by deciduous trees. Kodeshia's monsoon forest ecoregions are the Rainforest has a rainy season of at least nine months, and are dominated by broadleaf evergreen. In the region north of the Tropic of Cancer, in the Highland region, subtropical broadleaf evergreen dominates to an elevation of 2000m, and from 2000m to 3000m, semi-deciduous broadleaf dominates, and above 3000m, evergreen conifers and subalpine forest are the primary fauna until the alpine scrubland. There are also tropical savannas, and mangrove forests. The Kodeshi savanna is among the most biologically diverse savanna in the world.

The area from Yanhe to Beihai regions rea mostly monsoon forest, while coastal regions are primarily rainforest. Along the coasts tidal forests occur in estuaries, lagoons, tidal creeks, and low islands. These forests are host to the much-depleted Kodeshi mangroves habitat of mangrove and other trees that grow in mud and are resistant to sea water. Forests along the beaches consist of palm trees, hibiscus, casuarinas, and other trees resistant to storms.However the insurgency, pollution and habitat loss have endangered much of this biodiversity.

Wildlife in Kodeshia share habitat with and bear acute pressure from largest population of Homo sapiens. Hundreds of animal species are threatened, vulnerable or in danger of local extinction in Kodeshia, due mainly to human activity such as habitat destruction, pollution and poaching for food, fur and ingredients for traditional medicine. Endangered wildlife is protected by law, and as of 2005, the country has setup a large number of nature reserves. Due to their special status and association with Imperials houses of Kesh the Rykveterdraak, Veterdraak, and Imperial water dragons were given especially strict and expansive protection and number of special reserves have been created just for these creatures.

Environment

The Longbei river is one of the largest freshwater rivers in the world.
The tropical savanna region cover parts Kodeshia.
Much of Kodeshia is covered in tropical rainforest.
The Great Kesh Dividing range are among the tallest places on earth.

Kodeshia's large and growing population and rapid industrialisation present serious environmental issues. They are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels and weak, under-resourced governance. Problems include the large-scale illegal destruction and deforestation within the country that has resulted haze—over-exploitation of marine resources, air pollution, garbage management, and reliable water and wastewater services. These issues contribute to Kodeshia's poor ranking in the environmental rankings. The environmental degradation also includes national parks and wildlife sanctuaries on a large scale and many endangered and endemic species are now threatened with extinction due to loss of habitats. There are many reasons for the deforestation in Kodeshia, which range from opportunistic illegal loggings to large scale clearings from big construction projects and agricultural activities.

A typical Kodeshi rainforest landscape.

The environmental areas where Kodeshia performs worst are air quality, water resource management and health impacts of environmental issues, with the areas of sanitation, environmental impacts of fisheries and forest management following closely. Kodeshia performs best when it comes to handling the nitrogen balance in the agricultural industry specifically, an area where Kodeshia excels and are among the best in the world. In addition, Kodeshia has an unusually large area of wildlife protections, both on land and at sea, with the land-based protections covering about 20% of the country. Many of Kodeshia's ecoregions and the species within those regions are threatened by human activities and introduced animal, chromistan, fungal and plant species. All these factors have led to Kodeshia having one of the highest mammal extinction rate of any country in the world. The government has tried to protect threatened species, as a result, there are numerous protected areas have been created under the National Conservation of Program to protect and preserve unique ecosystems.

Protection of the environment is a major political issue in Kodeshia. Water restrictions are frequently in place in many regions and cities of Kodeshia in response to chronic shortages due to urban population increases and pollution. Throughout much of the continent, major flooding regularly occurrence, flushing out inland river systems, overflowing dams and inundating large inland flood plains. Environmental degradation also includes national parks and wildlife sanctuaries on a large scale and many endangered and endemic species are now threatened with extinction due to loss of habitats. There are many reasons for the deforestation in Kodeshia, which range from opportunistic illegal loggings to large scale clearings from big construction projects and agricultural activities. Plans for hydroelectric development in the Greater Longbei Subregion, in particular, pose a real danger to the food supply of the region. Upstream dams will imperil the fish stocks that provide the vast majority of Kodeshia's protein and could also denude the Longbei River of the silt needed for its rice basket.

But one of the main environmental concern that persists in Kodeshia today is the legacy of the use of the chemical herbicide Agent Orange, which continues to cause birth defects and many health problems in the Kodeshi population. In the south eastern areas affected most by the chemical's use during the Great Kesh War, nearly 5 million Kodeshi people have been exposed to it and suffered from its effects. In 2000, approximately 50 years after the war, KTEC led effort began an international clean-up project for nations effected by the Kesh War. The Kodeshi government spends millions in monthly allowances and the physical rehabilitation of victims of the chemicals. One of the long-term plans to restore south eastern Kodeshi's damaged ecosystems is through the use of reforestation efforts. The Kodeshi government began doing this at the end of the war. It started by replanting mangrove forests in the Taiyi river regions and outside Jiankang, where mangroves are important to ease (though not eliminate) flood conditions during monsoon seasons.

Apart from herbicide problems, arsenic in the ground water in the Longbei and Sliver River Deltas has also become a major concern. And most notoriously, unexploded ordnances (UXO) pose dangers to humans and wildlife—another bitter legacy from the long wars. As part of the continuous campaign to demine/remove UXOs, several international bomb removal agencies from around the world have been providing assistance. The Kodeshi government spends millions annually on demining operations and additional hundreds of millions more for treatment, assistance, rehabilitation, vocational training and resettlement of the victims of UXOs.

However these efforts have struggled around the heavily militarised disputed border between Kodeshia and Selengeria. The Kodeshi–Selengerian Demilitarized Zone (KSDZ) stretches along the vast eastern borders of Kodeshia. But this natural isolation along the length of the KSDZ has created an involuntary park which is now recognized as one of the most well-preserved areas of tropical rain-forests in the world. In 1968 it was first proposed that the KSDZ be turned into a national park. Several endangered animal and plant species now exist among the heavily fortified fences, landmines and listening posts. These include the endangered rykveterdraak, veterdraak, and imperial water dragons. Ecologists have identified some hundreds of plant species, mammals and birds within the narrow buffer zone. Additional surveys are now being conducted throughout the region. The KSDZ owes its varied biodiversity to its geography, which crosses mountains, tropical rain-forests, savannas, swamps, lakes, and tidal marshes. Environmentalists hope that the KSDZ will be conserved as a wildlife refuge, with a well-developed set of objective and management plans vetted and in place.

Economy

Chenghai the largest city and one of economic hubs and tourist destinations in the nation.

Economists estimate that Kodeshia was part of the wealthiest region of the world throughout the first millennium CE, with the largest economy by GDP. This advantage was lost in the 18th century as other regions such as Bakfong and Artemia edged forward. Kodeshia is considered a developing country. As of 2019, the Kodeshi economy is the world's 8th largest economy by GDP PPP and 4th in terms of GDP nominal within KTEC, estimated to be $1.761 trillion and $4.343 trillion respectively. Per capita GDP in PPP is Int$8,687, while nominal per capita GDP is Int$3,523. Its 2019 GDP growth rate of 5.7%, Kodeshia is one of the world's fastest-growing economies. Kodeshia has suffered from decades of stagnation, mismanagement, social instability, conflict and underproduction.[8] The economy has traditionally been fuelled by exporting commodities rather than manufacturing which dates back to the Imperial rule and exports of the natural resources.[9] The lack of an educated workforce skilled in modern technology hinders Kodeshia's economy, although recent reforms and developments carried out by the new government, in collaboration with foreign countries and organisations, aim to make this a thing of the past. The informal economy's share in Kodeshia is one of the biggest in the world and is closely linked to corruption, smuggling and illegal trade activities. Kodeshia lacks adequate infrastructure. Goods travel primarily across the Qingcheng border (where most illegal drugs are exported). Railways are old and rudimentary, with few repairs since their construction in the late 19th century. Highways are normally unpaved, except in the major cities.

Throughout the history of Kodeshia, its economy has been based largely on agriculture—primarily wet rice cultivation. Bauxite, an important material in the production of aluminium, is mined in central Kodeshia. The growth of Kodeshia's manufacturing, mining, and service sector has transformed the nations from a largely rural economy to an urbanised industrial one. [10] Today the major industrial sectors are agriculture, mining followed by the service sectors than steel and manufacturing.[11] A very gradual process of industrialisation and urbanisation began during the lead up to the Grand Campaignss following the Kodeshian Civil War, the economy was ravaged with the rural agriculture sectors most heavily hit leading to famines. Development occurred slowly with industrial production only managing to barely recover to its 1919 level by 1931. The new Guoist regime began a process of rapid industrialisation, starting in 1933, the regime began building a heavy industrial base at once in an underdeveloped economy without waiting years for capital to accumulate through the expansion of light industry, and without reliance on external financing. The country entered a process of rapid industrialisation at an unprecedented pace. After the reconstruction of the economy in the wake of the destruction caused by the Kodeshian Civil War was completed and after the initial plans of further industrialization were fulfilled. Kodeshia soon found itself at war in the Great Kesh War, which saw a massive boost the economic production as well as significant damage. In the aftermath of Great Kesh War, destruction caused by the war from 1949 to 1959 seriously strained the economy. The situation was worsened by the country's tens of million military and civilian deaths, destructions of thousands of cities, villages, factories, rail, road and arable farmland and the subsequent exodus of millions refugees, including tens of thousands of professionals, intellectuals, technicians and skilled workers. From 1960 to 1964, the postwar reconstruction did provide a modest boost to the economy but this period was plagued by enormous difficulties in production, imbalances in supply and demand, inefficiencies in distribution and circulation, soaring inflation rates, and rising debt problems. Its peacetime economy had shown a negative to very slow growth in agricultural production. The Xuanyi Restoration in 1964 saw period of violence and chaos and the Guoist regime was overthrown but the international support for the new regime brought a period of explosive growth which came to an end with the Yindong Crisis that had a severe impact on the economy. Following this Kosdeshia launched an economic renewal campaign and introduced reforms to provide incentives and encouraged the establishment of private businesses and foreign investment, including foreign-owned enterprises. By the late 1990s, the success of the business and agricultural reforms ushered, the economy was growing at an annual rate of more than 7%, and poverty was nearly halved.

Today Kodeshia has a dynamic, capitalist, export-driven economy with gradually decreasing state involvement in investment and foreign trade. In keeping with this trend, some large government-owned banks and industrial firms are being privatised. Exports have provided the primary impetus for industrialisation. Kodeshia has moved towards a consistent liberalisation and privatisation of many state-owned companies and liberal laws on establishing new firms have encouraged the development of the private business sector, along with a shift of exports from countries. The economy is now much more heavily integrated with its neighbours through the Kesh-Tethys Economic Cooperation and Sanqing internal markets.

Agriculture and fishery

The Kodeshi agricultural sector accounts for about 14.3% of the total country's GDP as of 2020. It contributes around $620 billion to the economy and employing about 80 million people (about 26 percent of the workforce). Primary agriculture commodities include rice, cassava, peanuts, natural rubber, cocoa, tea, coffee, palm oil, tropical fruits, poultry, beef, pork, and eggs. The development of farming over the course of Kodeshia's history has played a key role in supporting the growth of what is now considered the largest population in Anterra. The performance of this sector has an overwhelming impact on major macroeconomic objectives like employment generation, poverty alleviation, human resources development, food security, and other economic and social forces. Due to a number of factors, Kodeshia's labour-intensive agriculture has achieved steady increases in food grain production despite the often unfavourable weather conditions. These include better flood control and irrigation, a generally more efficient use of fertilisers, and the establishment of better distribution. Because of Kodeshia's fertile soil and normally ample water supply, rice can be grown and harvested three times a year in many areas.

Industry

Kodeshia has a large industrial capacity with it's industrial sector accounting for about 40% of GDP and employs about 72 million people (about 26% of the total workforce). Major industries include mining and ore processing; iron and steel; construction; coal; machinery; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; pharmaceuticals; Pulp and paper; chemical; fertilizers; food processing; motorcycles; automobiles and other transportation equipment including rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; consumer products including footwear, toys, and electronics; telecommunications and information technology.

Services and tourism

The services sector has the largest share of Kodeshia's GDP, accounting for 45% in 2020. The services sector provides employment to about 125 million people (about 45% of the workforce). Tourism is an important element of economic activity in the country, Kodeshia's tourism industry is one of the fastest-growing industries in the national economy and is also one of the industries with a very distinct global competitive edge. Kodeshia's tourist attractions include historical sites and monuments, resorts, beaches, picnic spots, forests and wildlife of various species. Activities for tourists include mountain climbing, caving, angling, water skiing, river cruising, hiking, rock climbing, rowing, kayaking, yachting, camping, off-road biking, and sea bathing. The sector is predicted to grow at an annual rate of 5.4% by 2028 (8.3% of GDP). Banking, retail, transportation, and telecommunications are all major industries within the nation.

Science and technology

From left to right: Shen Yi III rocket flight KSA-325 on launch pad and Kodeshi Space Agency astronaut Cao Wei participates in the second spacewalk of the Sanqing Space Research Organization mission.

Kodeshia is a leading nation in scientific research; expenditure on science and technology amounted to roughly 1.8% of GDP. Since the dynastic era, Kodeshi scholars have developed many academic fields especially in social sciences and humanities. Kodeshia was once a world leader in science and technology up until the Liang dynasty. Ancient Kodeshi discoveries and inventions, such as papermaking, printing, the compass, and gunpowder, became widespread across Kesh and later to Artemia. Kodeshi mathematicians were among the first to use negative numbers. In modern times, Kodeshi scientists have made many significant contributions in various fields of study, most notably in mathematics. Kodeshia is developing its education system with an emphasis on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM); Kodeshi scientific publications recorded in International Science Journals increased at a rate well above the average for South Eastern Kesh. Publications focus mainly on life sciences (25%), physics (15%) and engineering (18%), which is consistent with recent advances in the production of diagnostic equipment and shipbuilding.

The Kodeshi Space Agency (Guoyu: 山河间太空署; pinyin: Shānhé jiān tàikōng shǔ) is Kodeshia's national space agency; it conducts space, planetary, and aviation research, and leads development of rockets and satellites. It is a leading participant and biggest contributor to the Sanqing Space Research Organization (Guoyu: 三清空间研究组织; pinyin: Sānqīng kōngjiān yánjiū zǔzhī) Sanqing possesses one of the most advanced space programs in the world. Kodeshi has completed the Tianxia satellite navigation system, with its Sanqing partners as part of a joint Sanqing Space Research Organization and Kodeshi Space Agency program.

Infrastructure

Transport

Major transport modes in Kodeshia. Clockwise from top: Shangyu bus, Chenghai Commuter Line, small river boat, Taxi in Fuyang.

Transport is a key component of the nation's economy. But ground transport in Kodeshia has always been difficult. The terrain and climate of the Longbei Basin present serious barriers to road and rail construction, and the distances are enormous across this vast country. The current transport infrastructure is rudimentary at the best of times, was severely damaged in the chaos that engulfed the nation during the Grand Campaigns, civil war, Great Kesh War and long internal insurgency. The country's weak transport infrastructure seriously hinders the economic output of the nation. But things are improving rapidly in terms of both quantity and quality. Roadblocks often serve little other purpose than to allow police and gendarmes to collect bribes from travellers. Road banditry has long hampered transport along the less developed north-western interior borders. Chronic economic mismanagement, political corruption and internal conflicts have led to long-term under-investment of infrastructure.

A wide variety of vehicles are used for transportation on Kodeshia's roads. Bus services are available in most areas connected to the road network. Between major cities, services are frequent and direct; many services are available with no stops until the final destination. In more remote areas, and between smaller towns, most services are provided with share taxis often operating without licenses or any type of authorisation. Buses and vans are also the primary form of transportation within cities. Except for the several relatively good roads which provide essential corridors of transportation connecting major cities roads are poorly maintained and subject to inclement weather, since less than half of the roads and highways are hard surfaced, all-weather with the rest unpaved consisting of crushed stone, gravel, or compacted earth or unimproved earth or were little more than tracks.

In the late-1970s, Kodeshia's road network was both underutilized and unable to meet even the modest demands placed upon it by a preindustrial agrarian society. Commercial vehicles, such as trucks and buses, were insufficient in number and lacked the spare parts necessary to keep them running. Road construction and maintenance were ignored by a financially hard-pressed governments, while insurgents regularly destroyed bridges and rendered some routes unsafe for travel. But the government has undergone a massive expansion of the road networks since the 1980s. Due to the increasing purchasing power of Kodeshis, private cars are becoming more common especially in major cities. However the growth of the number of cars increasingly outpaces the construction of new roads, resulting in frequently crippling traffic jams in large parts in major cities especially in Chenghai, which often also happen on highways. Chenghai also has one of the worst traffic jams in the world. This is impacting the quality of life for inhabitants of the metropolitan area, the nation's largest. Many government and public-transport agencies drafted policies, undertook projects and implemented programmes to solve the problem. With more than hundreds of vehicles in Kodeshia and the country's population and infrastructure, traffic congestion wastes fuel and time and makes travel difficult. It also makes existing public transport inefficient, adding unsafe levels of noise and air pollution. Noise and pollution are stressful, and lead to medical conditions such as cardiovascular disease and hypertension. The poorly maintained road network is also considered to be a factor in the nations high rate of road fatalities, complicated by the rainy season and poor equipment which pose challenges to road maintenance.

Railway transport in Kodeshia was once the dominant mode of transportation until the mid-twentieth century. The quality of the railway infrastructure is generally poor. The tracks are in poor condition, and are not passable during the monsoon season. The speed of freight trains is heavily restricted on all existing links as a consequence of poor track and bridge conditions. Mass transportation is generally more well developed in the major cities but is still quite undeveloped in rural areas. Still rail is as an important method of mass transport in Kodeshia, and many districts are connected by rail and Kodeshia's rail network is among the busiest in the world. Recent Sanqing and KTEC initiatives have led to a major boost to the nations rail network with plans for large high-speed corridors to the link the Sanqing nations and south eastern Kesh rail networks together. Aviation in Kodeshia is broadly divided into military and civil aviation which is one of the fastest-growing aviation market in the world. Chenghai International Airport, located in the vicinity of Chenghai, is the largest and busiest airport in the country, handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic and connecting Chenghai with virtually all major cities across the region. Kodeshia Airlines (KAL) is the national carrier airline, although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services notably. Water transport has historically been very important. The nation's extensive inland waterways were important historically in domestic trade. Kodeshia has more navigable rivers and moves more passengers and goods by boat and ferry than nearly any other country in Kesh. The ferries are often overloaded and continue to operate in poor weather; many people die each year in ferry and launch accidents. In some areas, especially along the upper Longbei River, villages are completely dependent on waterways for communications. Launches, junks, or barges transport passengers, rice, and other food in the absence of roads and railways.

Energy

Major types of power plants in Kodeshia. Clockwise from top: Yinhe Dam (银河大坝), a hydroelectric dam on the Yin river it is owned and operated by the Kodeshi Electricity Group (SDJ), Guangshui Thermal Power Station (广水火力发电站) a coal fired power station in Guangshui province it is owned and operated by the Kodeshi Electricity Group (SDJ), Yucheng Gas Turbine Power Plant (裕城燃气轮机发电厂), a natural gas-fired power plant in Yucheng province it is owned and operated by PetroKodeshia, Hezhong Nuclear Power Plant (河中核电站), a nuclear power plant in Hezhong province it is owned and operated by the Shanhejian Electric Co., Ltd.

The country has substantial energy resources, including some conventional oil and gas reserves, along with substantial coal reserves. Most of Kodeshia's power is generated by either hydropower or fossil fuel power such as coal, oil and gas, while diesel, small hydropower and renewable energy supplies the remainder. While reliance on domestic coal and imported oil has increased, Kodeshia has seen progress in renewable energy, with hydropower being the most abundant source. Furthermore, the country has the potential for geothermal, solar, wind, biomass and ocean energy. The Kodeshi government had planned to develop nuclear reactors as the path to establish another source for electricity from nuclear power. Although the project has faced widespread public concern over radioactive contamination.

Kodeshia's energy sector is dominated largely by the state-controlled Kodeshi Electricity Group (SDJ). As of 2018, SDJ made up the majority of the country's power generation system. Other major energy sources are PetroKodeshia and Yuhai Energy. The household gas sector in Kodeshia is dominated by PetroKodeshia, which controls most of the country's domestic market for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). According to statistics from Petrostado, Kodeshia is listed among the countries that have proven crude oil reserves. In 2018 the reserve was approximately 4.5 billion barrels.

Telecommunication

Kodeshia's telecommunication network is the generally considered to be largest in the world by number of telephone users (both fixed and mobile phone) with over 450 million subscribers as on 31 January 2021. Kodeshia has among the world's largest Internet user-base with over 212 million broadband internet subscribers in the country. Kodeshia possesses a diversified communications system, which links all parts of the country by telephone, Internet, radio, television and satellite. The top three telecom operators in Kodeshia were SJ Corporation, Kodeshia Telecom and Jiangguo Telecom. The remaining companies included: Kodeshia Mobile, SNSC and K-Fone. Kodeshia has developed its own satellite navigation system, in partnership with Sanqing dubbed Tianxia, which began offering commercial navigation services across Kesh in 20XX as well as global services by the end of 20XX. Major sectors of the Kodeshi telecommunication industry are telephone, internet and television broadcast industry in the country which is in an ongoing process of transforming into next generation network, employs an extensive system of modern network elements such as digital telephone exchanges, mobile switching centres, media gateways and signalling gateways at the core, interconnected by a wide variety of transmission systems using fibre-optics or Microwave radio relay networks. The access network, which connects the subscriber to the core, is highly diversified with different copper-pair, optic-fibre and wireless technologies.

Water supply and sanitation

Water supply and sanitation infrastructure in Kodeshia is facing challenges such as rapid urbanization, as well as water scarcity, contamination, and pollution. Most of the country's urban water supply systems have been developed without proper management within the last 10 years. Based on surveys by the Ministry of Health, existing water production capacity exceeded demand, but service coverage is still sparse. Most of the clean water supply infrastructure is not widely developed. It is only available to a small proportion of the population. There is also concern over the safety of existing water resources for urban and rural water supply systems. Most industrial factories release their untreated wastewater directly into the water sources. Where the government does not take measures to address the issue, most domestic wastewater is discharged, untreated, back into the environment and pollutes the surface water.

In recent years, there have been some efforts and collaboration between local and foreign universities to develop access to safe water in the country by introducing water filtration systems. There is a growing concern among local populations over the serious public health issues associated with water contamination caused by pollution as well as the high levels of arsenic in groundwater sources. The government of Zahava has been providing aid focusing its investments mainly on water-related sectors including water treatment projects. KTEC and Sanqing led investments efforts into water treatment and water-related projects has expanded since the late 1990s.

Demographics

Kodeshia is a populous nation with a total population of 500,012,074 as of 2019.[12] The population has been growing at a rate of 1.19% per year, reflecting the nation's high birth rate and declining mortality rates. The median age in Kodeshia is 24.85, indicating a relatively young population.

Kodeshia is known for its cultural diversity, with a range of ethnicities and languages present throughout the nation. The largest ethnic group in Kodeshia is the Xiong, who make up 53% of the population. Other significant ethnic groups include the Tai at 11%, Yao at 8%, Biji at 6%, Hanzu at 5%, and Hui at 3%. There are also many other ethnic groups that make up the remaining population, with 24 officially recognized ethnic groups and up to 150 living languages spoken in various regions and provinces. The national language of Kodeshia is Guoyu, a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon.

Parts of the nation are highly urbanised country, with three megacities as classified by the National Statistics Office of Kodeshia (國家統計局) Chenghai, with a population of 11,587,572, followed by Jianghua with 8,701,948, and the Imperial capital Songhari with 5,358,381 residents. The rest of the population is distributed across many smaller cities, towns and villages. Despite its urbanisation, the majority of the population resides in rural areas, with 66.21% living in rural regions and only 33.79% residing in urban areas.

The rapid movement of people from rural to urban areas has put a significant strain on Kodeshia's infrastructure, particularly in its largest cities. Despite these challenges, Kodeshia has achieved significant economic growth in recent years, and its population is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades. The government has placed a strong emphasis on economic development, and initiatives have been implemented to address issues such as poverty, environmental degradation, and social inequality. The country has also made significant strides in expanding access to education and healthcare, with literacy rates and life expectancies among the highest in the region.

Kodeshia's rich cultural heritage is reflected in its many traditions and customs, which are deeply intertwined with the country's history and diverse ethnic groups. While modernisation has brought many changes to the nation's way of life, Kodeshia's people continue to hold onto their unique customs and practices, contributing to the country's rich cultural fabric.

Language

Composition of Kodeshia by nationality
Xiong
  
53%
Tai
  
11%
Yao
  
8%
Biji
  
6%
Hanzu
  
5%
Hui
  
3%
Yi
  
2%
Kam
  
1%
Sui
  
1%
Jing
  
1%
Bai
  
1%
Hani
  
1%
Gejia
  
1%
Naxi
  
1%
Tanka
  
1%
Dai
  
1%
Lahu
  
1%
Lisu
  
1%
Yang
  
1%
Huaxiang
  
1%
Mon
  
1%
Qiang
  
0.45%
Mosuo
  
0.31%
Zang
  
0.20%
Other
  
1%

Guoyu is the national language and and has always been widely spoken throughout the country. Guoyu is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon. Despite this, there are up to 150 living languages spoken within various regions and provinces. As a result, Kodeshia is known for its linguistic diversity and has a rich tapestry of local languages. The official national language is Standard Guoyu, a variety of Guoyu based on the Songhari dialect. It is a widely spoken language and is used as a lingua franca across the country, particularly among people of different linguistic backgrounds. Standard Guoyu is used in official government and business communication, as well as in education.

The use of Standard Guoyu as the official national language of Kodeshia has been a subject of debate and controversy. Some language experts argue that it overlooks the diversity of local languages and dialects and that it should not be imposed on other groups. Despite this, the government has continued to promote the use of Standard Guoyu as a means of fostering national unity and cohesion.

The government has implemented policies to support the preservation of local languages and dialects, including the establishment of language schools and the creation of educational materials in local languages. Additionally, the government has encouraged the development of regional and local language media, including television and radio stations, to promote the use of local languages.

In recent years, the use of Standard Guoyu has been challenged by the emergence of new forms of media, particularly on the internet. Social media and messaging platforms have enabled people to communicate using a variety of local languages and dialects, leading some to argue that the use of Standard Guoyu may be declining in importance. Despite this, Standard Guoyu remains an important part of Kodeshi culture and identity.

Religion

The Yuhuang temple one of the oldest Xuanist temples constructed in Kodeshia.
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Religion in Kodeshia according to the KTEC Cultural and Tourism Centre survey, 2019

      Shangxuan Xuanism (88.5%)
      Folk Xuanism (4.5%)
      Haqiqatan (3.5%)
      Zhengxuan (1.4%)
      Messianism (0.8%)
      Da'ao Shu (0.5%)
      Ordonism (0.4%)
      Atheism (0.3%)
      Undeclared (0.2%)

Shangxuan Xuanism is the official religion of Kodeshia, practised by more than 90 percent of the population practising some form of it and with an estimated 8,392 monastery temples throughout the country. It is also an integral part of Kodeshi identity and culture. The Kodeshi Emperor is considered the Tianren or Person of Heaven and protector of Xuanism and Kodeshi civilisation. In the 2019 census, 88.5% of Kodesis population reported as following Shangxuan Xuanism; followed by 4.5% following some form of Folk Xuanism. Followed by 3.5% as Qara'aha, making Haqiqatan the second-largest religion in the country. However, the National Commission of Qara'aha Kodeshis (NCQK) disputes this and claims the adherence of about 5.8% of the total population. Most Qara'aha Kodeshis practice Ard al'Hasan according to although are a minority of Ard al-Nizae in the country. This was followed by 1.4% following the Zhengzuan tradition of Xuanism then Messianism with 0.8% of the population making Messianism the third-largest religion in the country outside of Haqiqatan and Xuanism. Then the Da'ao Shu tradition of Xuanism with 0.5% followed by Ordonism with 0.4% of the population and Atheism represented 0.3% of the population followed. The remaining 0.2% of the population did not provide an adequate answer.

Folk or popular religion, the most widespread system of beliefs and practices, has evolved and adapted since at least the second millennium BCE. Xuanism is the most popular and widely accepted domestic religion. These folk beliefs placed a heavy emphasis on belonging to the land. The with a collection of oral stories that were passed down from person to person contained and shaped native customs and practises. Native art, story and dance continue to draw on these spiritual traditions.

Since the arrival of Ordonism and later Haqiqatan and Messianism these religions have grown to influence the nation. While Ordonism and Haqiqatan have become dominant religions backed by many historical states that occupied areas of current day Kodeshia. There is a substantial and vocal Qara'aha population, particularly within Xiguan, Yueshan and Shixia provinces.

Education

Kodeshia is a country that values education, as evidenced by its high literacy rate of 94.7% as of 2019. This figure breaks down into 93.5% for males and 95.9% for females. The country's educational system is highly subsidised and operates on a three-tiered model, with the government operating many schools at the primary, secondary, and higher secondary levels and subsidising many private schools, including those affiliated with Shangxuan Xuanism.

Kodeshia has one of the largest higher education systems in the world, with around 198 universities (95 provincial, 57 private and 46 national), 12,686 colleges (7,528 private, 4,921 provincial and 237 national), and 53,299 schools. The country has made significant strides in improving its education system in recent decades, with education often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development. However, despite affirmative action policies aimed at historically disadvantaged groups, there remain inequalities in society that allow aristocracy and the elite to have better access to education.

The Kodeshi educational system is highly diverse and complex, reflecting the country's rich cultural heritage and diversity. The top three universities in Kodeshia are Songhari Imperial University, National Kodeshi University, and Chenghai University. Songhari Imperial University, located in the Imperial capital city of Songhari, is one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in the country and is renowned for its programs in the fields of arts and literature, humanities and social sciences. The National Kodeshi University, located in the city of Jianghua, is ranked amongst the top universities in the country and offers a wide range of undergraduate and graduate programs in various fields with a focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Chenghai University, located in the city of Chenghai, is a relatively new institution that has quickly established itself as one of the top universities in the country, particularly in the fields of business and technology.

Public education in Kodeshia comprises 12 years of primary and secondary education, with students who complete secondary education awarded a certificate known as the Senior School Certificate Examination. This certificate qualifies them for admission to higher education institutions, subject to meeting additional requirements. The country's education system is actively engaged in research and development, with universities contributing to the country's scientific and technological progress. This is supported by the government's investment in research and development, with a focus on scientific research and technological innovation.

Despite the country's large investment in education, there are still challenges facing the Kodeshi education system. The system's sheer size and complexity can make it difficult for the government to ensure uniform quality across all institutions. Additionally, disparities in funding and resource allocation can lead to unequal access to educational opportunities, particularly for students from less privileged backgrounds. Nonetheless, Kodeshia's commitment to education has contributed significantly to the country's economic and social development, and the government continues to invest in its educational system to ensure that future generations have access to high-quality education.

Health

The Kodeshia Constitution guarantees free, universal health care for all its citizens. As of 2019, the average life expectancy in Kodeshia was among the lowest in the region with an average 70.01 years, 72.8 years for women and 67.2 for men.

The government health insurance programme maintains compulsory insurance for citizens who are employed, impoverished, unemployed, or victims of natural disasters with fees that correlate to the individual and/or family income; it also maintains protection for non-citizens working in Kodeshia. A standardised method of calculation applies to all persons and can optionally be paid by an employer or by individual contributions. Despite these improvements, malnutrition is still common in rural provinces.

Since the Great Kesh War, the Guoist regime was the first to establish a nationwide health service. An emphasis on public health and preventive medicine has characterised Kodeshi health policy since the early 1950s. At that time, the Emperor launched a National Health Campaign, which was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, as well as treating and preventing several diseases. Diseases such as cholera, typhoid and scarlet fever, which were previously rife in Kodeshia, were nearly eradicated by the campaign.

In the late 1970s, the quality of healthcare declined to some degree as a result of budgetary constraints, a shift of responsibility to the provinces and the introduction of charges along with the domestic insurgency impacting the level and roll out of care to regional areas. Since the early 1990s, Kodeshia has made significant progress in combating malaria. The malaria mortality rate fell to about five per cent of its 1990s equivalent by 2005 after the country introduced improved antimalarial drugs and treatment.

The controversial use of herbicides as a chemical weapon by the Tiperyn and Selengerian militaries during the Great Kesh War left tangible, long-term impacts upon the Kodeshi people that persist in the country today. For instance, it led to six million Kodeshi people suffering health problems, one million birth defects caused directly by exposure to the chemical and 10% of Kodeshia's land being defoliated. In addition Kodeshia was once one of the most landmined countries in the world. According to some estimates, unexploded land mines have been responsible for over 100,000 civilian deaths and thousands more maimed or injured since 1960. The number of reported landmine casualties has sharply decreased as Kodeshi and international demining programs are carried out. Kodeshia is expected to be free of land mines by 2020. But the social and economic legacy, including orphans and amputees, is expected to affect Kodeshia for years to come as the long term effects filter through society.

Culture

Kodeshi culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago. The culture prevails across a large geographical region in East Kesh and is extremely diverse and varying, with customs and traditions varying greatly between provinces, cities, and even towns as well as such Kodeshia has a multicultural, multilingual and multi-ethnic society, with a complex cultural mixture. Since ancient times, Kodeshi culture has been heavily influenced by Xuanism. Kodeshi civilization is historically considered the dominant culture of East Kesh. As Kodeshia was one of the earliest ancient civilizations within the region, Kodeshi culture exerts profound influence on the philosophy, virtue, etiquette, and traditions of Kesh date. Kodeshi language, ceramics, architecture, music, dance, literature, martial arts, cuisine, visual arts, philosophy, business etiquette, religion, politics, and history have global influence, while its traditions and festivals are also celebrated, and practiced by people around the world. Kodeshia leads Sanqing an international organization that includes HCCK and Qingcheng that represents Kodeshi civilization and culture.

Arts

Examples of Kodeshi Art. Clockwise from top: Traditional Kodeshi Carved lacquer box, Zhou dynasty ceramics, Kodeshi opera, Traditional Kodeshi Shan shui painting.

The art of Kodeshia encompasses many disciplines, including architecture, ceramics, textiles, lacquerware, metalworking, weaving, painting, and calligraphy. Kodeshi works of art show a great variety in style, in different regions and periods. Kodeshia has an ancient tradition of art, which has exchanged influences with the parts of Kesh. Kodeshi art has arguably one of the oldest continuous tradition in the world. Different forms of art have swayed under the influence of great philosophers, teachers, religious figures and even political figures. Kodeshi art, like Kodeshi history, is typically classified by the succession of ruling dynasties of Kodeshi emperors, most of which lasted several hundred years. Kodeshi art encompasses all facets of fine art, folk art and performance art. Porcelain pottery was one of the first forms of art in the Palaeolithic period. Early Kodeshi music and poetry was influenced by classical Xuanist poetry. Kodeshi painting became a highly appreciated art in court circles encompassing a wide variety of Shan shui with specialized styles such as Zhou dynasty painting. Early Kodeshi music was based on percussion instruments, which later gave away to stringed and reed instruments. By the Zu dynasty papercutting became a new art form after the invention of paper. Kodeshi opera would also be introduced and branched regionally in addition to other performance formats such as variety arts.

Media

Kodeshia's media sector is regulated by the government, the Ministry of Information monitors and controls domestic media and restricted foreign media. According to most outside observers since the Xuanyi Restoration, political discourse has been unrestricted in Kodeshia; however, there are persistent concerns that remain. The national security laws that allow the government to limit the expression of ideas deemed damaging to the security of the nation; the nature of this statute leave it open to wide interpretations which could be used to prevent peaceful protests or dissents. In addition, the government has brought a libel suit against many of the major national newspapers, and the government has stated that editorials are subject to legal action if they are found to contain falsehoods. Outside observers have criticised these pressure tactics which are used by both the Kodeshi government and the business community to influence reporting as harsh and reminiscent of the Guoist-era tactics to control the media. Despite this though some newspapers are relatively outspoken.

The National news agency of Kodeshia is Shanhejian News Agency which is the official wire service owned by the government and works with a number of well-known news agencies around the world. The Songhari Times is Kodeshia's leading newspaper and aligned closely with the ruling National Conservative Alliance (NCA) political party but remains influential and respected. Although some major opposition parties also have their own, which are openly sold alongside regular newspapers. A divide exists between the media between government approved and opposition news media sources. The Chenghai Times is one of the major opposition newspaper, affiliated with the United Progressive Front (UPF) political party. Kodeshi Daily News is another opposition newspaper, associated with the Democratic Socialist Party (DSP) political party. The Kodeshi Post is an independent newspaper not aligned with any political party an internationally respected. The Grienstien Herald is a well known newspaper that is one of the most outspoken and independent in Kodeshia. The National Daily News is a pro-government newspaper. While the Bright Star Times is a tabloid newspaper and the Financial Observer is a Kodeshi newspaper that focuses on business, finance, and economics. It is independent of any political party or ideology, but it tends to have a pro-market perspective and is one of the most respected and influential newspapers in Kodeshia. There are some foreign language newspapers along with numerous Kodeshi newspapers in circulation.

Most Kodeshi popular magazines use Anglic characters for headlines as a chic glamour factor. The five nationwide television networks are Kodeshi Broadcasting Corporation-1, Kodeshi Broadcasting Corporation-2 and Kodeshi Broadcasting Corporation-3 (public broadcast), National Kodeshi Broadcasting Service (run as a public organization), and Jianghe TV Network (a commercial broadcaster). Kodeshia has numerous public, non-profit television and radio stations. Many Kodeshi households have access to broadband Internet access and the online media, the marketplace is growing rapidly. Today, much of the news in Kodeshia is delivered through electronic means and the country is at the leading edge of the digital revolution and a trailblazer for high-speed and wireless internet services.

Freedom of the press is limited, with numerous restrictions on publishing rights and information dissemination. The government has previously tried to crack down on opposition papers before elections. Government agencies have been known to issue directives to all private television and radio stations to refrain from broadcasting speeches made by opposition leaders, a move condemned by politicians from the opposition parties. The Yuhai Islands, home to the Grienstien Herald has the freest press in Kodeshia.

Cuisine

The national drink and national dish of the country.

Kodeshi cuisine is highly diverse, drawing on several millennia of culinary history and geographical variety. All of them are featured by the precise skills of shaping, heating, and flavouring. Kodeshi cuisine is also known for its width of cooking methods and ingredients, as well as food therapy that is emphasized by traditional Kodeshi medicine. Generally, Kodeshia's staple food is rice and noodles. The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions and the bean products, such as tofu and soy milk, remain as a popular source of protein. Pork is now the most popular meat in Kodeshia, accounting for about three-fourths of the country's total meat consumption. While pork dominates the meat market, there is also the vegetarian cuisine and the pork-free Kodeshi Haqiqatic cuisine. Southern cuisine, due to the area's proximity to the ocean, has a wide variety of seafood and vegetables; it differs in many respects from inland northern Kodeshia diets. Numerous offshoots of Kodeshi food, have emerged in the nations that play host to the Kodeshia diaspora. The Kodeshi fast food restaurant chain Zhenkekou has brought Kodeshi cuisine to much wider prominence across the world.

Sport and recreation

A multi-venue sports stadium in Kodeshia.

Sport in Kodeshia is a significant part of the country’s culture, which has one of the oldest sporting traditions in the world. Some of the earliest forms of sport in Kodeshia include archery, swordplay, and cuju, a game similar to association football. These sports date back to the ancient dynasties of Kodeshia and reflect the martial arts heritage of the country.[13]

Physical fitness is widely valued in Kodeshia, and many people practice morning exercises such as qigong and t’ai chi ch’uan. Commercial gyms and private fitness clubs have also become popular in recent years. Among the modern sports, football is one of the most popular and accessible in Kodeshia, with the Kodeshi Super League attracting millions of fans and viewers. The national team, known as the Kodeshi Football Association, has a large following and has produced many talented players, such as Ho Yong.

Other popular sports in Kodeshia include xiangqi, mahjong, chess, kickboxing, skiing, gymnastics, cycling, martial arts, horse-riding, dragon boat racing, volleyball, and auto racing. Kodeshia has also been successful in international competitions, such as the Global Rally Championship (GRC), a series of rallies held on different surfaces and conditions around the world. Kodeshia has won five GRC titles, with Fushou Motorsport being the most successful team, Kodeshia has produced several world-class drivers, such as Li Wei. Kodeshia also supports the GRC as a tyre supplier through Maojia Rubber. Kodeshia is also a strong contender in other forms of auto racing, such as the GT World Challenge and the Formula levels. These events attract a large fan base in Kodeshia, who follow the races on television and online platforms.

See also

References

  1. "Kodeshia's GDP PPP". Retrieved 29 March, 2015.
  2. "Kodeshia's GDP PPP per capita". Retrieved 29 March, 2015.
  3. "Kodeshia's GDP (nominal)". Retrieved 29 March, 2015.
  4. "Kodeshia's GDP (nominal) per capita". Retrieved 29 March, 2015.
  5. "Anterran Bureau for Geography calculations". Retrieved 9 December , 2022.
  6. "Anterra Intelligence listed total reserves as 20,000,000 for many years, assuming a Great Kesh War-style callup. The potential reserve personnel of Kodeshia may be as high as 20 million, depending on how the figures are counted.
  7. Wu, Xingyue (8 August 2019). "Cao Mingzhu's Defence Reforms". The Chenghai Times. https://thechenghaitimes.co.ko/2019/08/08/defence-minister-reforms/. 
  8. Li, Shen (5 July 2012). "Kodeshia's economy: an overview". Kodeshi Journal. http://kodeshijournal.co.ko//2012/07/rise.html. 
  9. "Imperialism by Geun Jae-hyeon via Jingfang Books. p.723. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  10. "Kodeshia' GDP (nominal) per capita". Retrieved 28 June, 2014.
  11. Hsu, Guang (4 May 1985). "Key industries of Kodeshia". Shanhejian News Agency. http://shanhejiannewsagency.ko/eng/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=DSC28501504.05.1965&l=mi&eall. 
  12. "National Statistics Office of Kodeshia estimate". Retrieved 12 January, 2023.
  13. Li, Jian (10 March 2020). "Martial Arts: The Soul of Kodeshi Culture". The Kodeshi Post. https://www.kodeshipost.com/martial-arts-the-soul-of-kodeshi-culture/. 

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